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Thread: China's Science Revolution

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    China's Science Revolution

    The BBC has highlighted how China is investing heavily in science. It highlights 5 key science projects to demonstrate this. One of this is space exploration and the other is the Five-hundred-metre Aperture Spherical Telescope (FAST) - the worlds largest radio telescope.

    http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/resources/...5-92eab6466362


    China is super-sizing science.

    From building the biggest experiments the world has ever seen to rolling out the latest medical advances on a massive scale and pushing the boundaries of exploration from the deepest ocean to outer space - China’s scientific ambitions are immense.

    Just a few decades ago the nation barely featured in the world science rankings. Now, in terms of research spending and the number of scientific papers published, it stands only behind the US.

    But despite this rapid progress, China faces a number of challenges.

    Here are five key science projects that illustrate its enormous strengths, as well as some of its weaknesses, and may help answer the question whether China can become a global leader in research.

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    I flew over Arecibo several times about 30 years ago and took the opportunity to visit. It's a bit like visiting Grand Canyon. No words or photos can convey the sense it inspires. Surely the Chinese machine must be wonderful to see.

    But whoda thunk the Chinese would progress so much? I like it. This can only increase world's % of GDP going to this type of worthy endeavour. It bodes well for us all.

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    Bloomberg News now echos the BBC with today's article.

    https://www.bloomberg.com/graphics/2...ace/china.html

    The launch of the Shenzhou 11 spacecraft in western China last month marked another great leap forward for the nation’s space program and its ambition to send manned missions to the moon and, eventually, Mars. Yet more than national prestige is at stake: China is counting on its space program to pay huge economic dividends.

    China is NASA’s biggest rival in space exploration with plans to land “taikonauts” on the moon by 2036 and Mars thereafter. Along the way, President Xi Jinping hopes the space missions will spawn a wave of Chinese innovation in robotics, aviation and artificial intelligence, among other leading 21st-century technologies.

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    This an article on Chinese Astrophysicist Zhang Shuangnan. Gives you an idea on how the Chinese government is investing on people like him.

    http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1020653.shtml

    Zhang's expertise is in neutron stars, black holes, galaxies and the evolution of the universe through astronomical observation and theoretical calculation. On the side he develops astronomical instruments for space.

    But he also tries to explain science to the public from the angle of beauty, and to study beauty in a scientific way.

    Zhang is in charge of two important projects. One is a probe on China's first space lab, Tiangong-2, to detect the polarization of gamma-ray bursts, and the other is a space telescope, the Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT), to be launched soon.

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    Now Scientific America comes one with an article with what a fantastic year in space and their immediate future plans.

    https://www.scientificamerican.com/a...d-speculation/

    Floating back under parachute from outer space to Inner Mongolia on November 17, China’s Shenzhou-11 astronauts brought to a close the nation’s longest piloted space trek, which lasted 33 days. The mission capped off a year that saw a series of noteworthy successes in China’s blossoming space program, including the country’s sixth manned space mission, the launch of a new space lab module and the inaugural use of a new spaceport. China also opened a world-class radio telescope this year, signaling the country’s growing involvement in space science. These advances, experts say, establish China as one of the top-tier spacefaring nations on Earth and the one with perhaps more momentum than anyone—a status that excites scientists and could inspire other nations to step up their own plans.

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    Yet another example of results from China's investment in science R&D.

    http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1022255.shtml

    A non-toxic propulsion system developed by Chinese scientists will enable satellites to carry more payload and save on satellite launching costs, the system's developer said Tuesday.

    The ammonium dinitramide (ADN) technology used in the system proved successful when it was tested in the Shijian-17 satellite sent into space last month, the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation said in a statement.

    Shijian-17 is tasked with verifying technology for observation of space debris, new electric sources and electric propulsion.

    According to scientists, the propulsion system is meant to help an orbiting satellite sustain its altitude as atmospheric drag and gravity can lead to gradual descent in orbit.

    It will also make China the second country after Sweden to master a non-toxic propulsion technology in orbit, it said.

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    Now Andrew Jones writes on Chinese science ambitions.

    http://gbtimes.com/china/chinas-spac...akthrough-year

    China's National Space Science Centre (NSSC) has unveiled a range of space science missions to be developed over the next five years, following the success of a number of pioneering missions over the last 12 months.

    The missions were selected from a roadmap for a long-term space science program and will delve into some of the most fundamental questions such as the formation and evolution of the universe, the formation and evolution of the solar system, and the study of exoplanets and potential extra-terrestrial life.

    The unveiled missions are a space-weather observatory mission in collaboration with the European Space Agency (SMILE), a global water cycle observation mission (WCOM), the Magnetosphere, Ionosphere and Thermosphere mission (MIT), the Einstein Probe (EP), and the Advanced Space-based Solar Observatory (ASO-S).

    The missions will be overseen and integrated by the NSSC, under the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS).

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    Another article that highlights China is becoming a powerhouse in scientific R&D.

    It is also good to read that, other than NASA, there is no restrictions on American scientists working with their Chinese counterparts.

    http://www.sciencemag.org/careers/fe...-power-science

    After emerging as a trade superpower, China aims to become a leading force in scientific research and applications ranging from cosmology and spaceflight to genomics and medicine. Universities across south China are stepping up the recruitment of scientists with advanced degrees gained in Europe or the United States. This strategy has yielded prestigious science prizes and papers, and generated the growth of scientific research clusters in the region.

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    Quote Originally Posted by selvaarchi View Post
    This an article on Chinese Astrophysicist Zhang Shuangnan. Gives you an idea on how the Chinese government is investing on people like him.

    http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1020653.shtml
    Sounds like a Chinese Carl Sagan.

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    Nice to read about a young persons who joined as a technician and made it up the management tree.

    http://www.shanghaidaily.com/feature.../shdaily.shtml

    Wang started to work as a fitter in a machinery factory in Shanghai’s Minhang District when he was 19. The factory was later known as the Shanghai Aerospace Equipments Manufacturer, one of the most important space manufacturing bases in China.

    “At that time, I was very young, without big ambitions like dreaming of space,” Wang says. “I chose the factory mainly because it was close to my home.”

    Also because of the closeness, Wang would immediately ride on his bike to the factory when there was anything wrong in the laboratory, even at midnight.

    Three years after China unveiled the three-step strategy, the space docking project was launched in 1995.

    “The most difficult thing is to start from nothing,” says Wang. “Because none of us had done this before, there was no standard or material to refer to. We had to explore everything ourselves.”

    Wang and his team’s job was to assemble tens of thousands of components of the docking system in the right place, including 118 sensors, 291 gears, 759 bearing parts and more than 11,000 fasteners.

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    China's achievements in space since 2012.

    This was prepared for the 19th CPC National Congress

    http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1070666.shtml

    Achievements of China's space program since 18th CPC National Congress

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    Andrew Jones writes about China's future space science projects.

    https://gbtimes.com/china-starts-cut...ons-successful

    China has declared its dark matter, x-ray observatory, microgravity and quantum space science missions successful, and is turning attention to a new batch of cutting edge projects.

    The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) last Tuesday declared that the four missions making up its pioneering Strategic Priority Program on Space Science have been successful in terms of science, management and execution.

    The missions, launched between December 2015 and June 2017, are the 'Wukong' (or DAMPE) dark matter probe, the Shijian-10 retrievable satellite, the Quantum Science Satellite 'Mozi', and the Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT), also known as 'Insight'.

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    Chinese researchers help usher in new era in astrophysics

    http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/20..._136686681.htm

    Chinese researchers have played a significant role in opening a new era of "Multimessenger astronomy," marked by the first detection of both electromagnetic radiation and gravitational waves and light in the same cosmic collision.

    The discovery is also the first verification of a "kilonova" explosion, confirming binary neutron star collisions as one source for the universe's heaviest elements, such as gold and uranium.

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    China is planing to use their discarded rocket parts into an in-orbit Internet of Things.

    http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/20..._136811160.htm

    Chinese scientists have turned the final stage of a launch rocket, which is discarded in space after sending a satellite into orbit, into a smart application platform by fitting it with intelligent chips.

    A program carried out by Shanghai-based Fudan University installed several intelligent chips on the final stage of the Long March 4C rocket, which sent the Fengyun-3D satellite into orbit in November.

    Fudan University's Zheng Lirong, the chief scientist of the program, said discarded rocket sections during space launches constitute the largest percentage of space debris. By installing multiple chip systems on the rocket, the team has established the initial stage of a space-based Internet of Things.

    He explained that the launch rocket will jettison a section when it runs out of propellant in order to decrease the mass, and the final stage of the rocket is delivered to the orbit along with the payload.

    "With these intelligent chips attached, space debris can be transformed into a low-cost science experiment and communication platform," he said.

    Zheng's team has taken two years to develop the functional modules and hardware to make the "nanosatellites," with each set of the functional modules weighing less than 30 grams.
    The team has named the intelligent chip system "Xinyun," meaning the cloud of chips.

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    Quote Originally Posted by selvaarchi View Post
    China is planing to use their discarded rocket parts into an in-orbit Internet of Things.

    http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/20..._136811160.htm
    They have already started

    https://gbtimes.com/chinas-new-fengy...-space-program

    Scientists at Shanghai-based Fudan University used the upper stage of the Long March 4C rocket used to launch Fengyun-3D to test new technology.

    According to Xinhua the upper stage, which delivered the satellite and the accompanying HEAD-1 private maritime satellite into preset orbits, was turned into a smart application platform by fitting it with intelligent, 30 gram chips to establish the initial stage of a space-based Internet of Things.

    Discarded rocket stages constitute the largest percentage of space debris according to Fudan's Zheng Lirong, the chief scientist of the program.

    "With these intelligent chips attached, space debris can be transformed into a low-cost science experiment and communication platform," he said.

    The team has named the intelligent chip system "Xinyun," meaning cloud of chips.

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    Another area where China says they have made major advances.

    http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1086246.shtml

    China announced Tuesday that it has successfully conducted the world's first two-way high-speed laser communication test, using a laser communication terminal installed on high-throughput satellite Shijian-13 orbiting 40,000 kilometers above Earth, marking the satellite's official use.

    The successful test shows that the country is at the forefront when it comes to high-speed space information transmission, according to an article posted on the official WeChat public account of the equipment development branch of China's People's Liberation Army Daily.

    Pang Zhihao, a Beijing-based space communication expert, told the Global Times on Tuesday that the satellite, transmitting information on the KA band, can carry more data and has great anti-jamming capabilities compared to traditional ground-based technologies that use lower frequency C and KU bands, enabling better internet access for passengers of planes and high-speed trains.

    The laser communication can also facilitate communication in space, laying a great foundation for the country's future space probe projects, Pang added.

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    China has become the 4th country to do a Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) experiment.

    https://gbtimes.com/china-just-bounc...llo-15-mission

    China has successfully used a 1.2-metre telescope laser ranging system to bounce light off a retroreflector placed on the Moon during NASA's Apollo 15 crewed lunar mission.

    The Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) experiment, a national first, was carried out by the applied astronomy group from the Yunnan Observatories, operating under the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS).

    LLR is used to achieve the highest accuracy measurements of the distance between the Earth and the Moon. Before now, only the US, France and Italy had successfully deployed LLR technology.

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    I apologize Selvaarchi.

    I was posting while grumpy.
    Last edited by BigDon; 2018-Jan-26 at 01:42 AM.
    Time wasted having fun is not time wasted - Lennon
    (John, not the other one.)

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    Yet another area where China has caught up and may be leading!

    http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2018/...rt-empty-space

    "Inside a cramped laboratory in Shanghai, China, physicist Ruxin Li and colleagues are breaking records with the most powerful pulses of light the world has ever seen. At the heart of their laser, called the Shanghai Superintense Ultrafast Laser Facility (SULF), is a single cylinder of titanium-doped sapphire about the width of a Frisbee. After kindling light in the crystal and shunting it through a system of lenses and mirrors, the SULF distills it into pulses of mind-boggling power. In 2016, it achieved an unprecedented 5.3 million billion watts, or petawatts (PW). The lights in Shanghai do not dim each time the laser fires, however. Although the pulses are extraordinarily powerful, they are also infinitesimally brief, lasting less than a trillionth of a second. The researchers are now upgrading their laser and hope to beat their own record by the end of this year with a 10-PW shot, which would pack more than 1000 times the power of all the world's electrical grids combined."

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