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Thread: China's Science Revolution

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    China's Science Revolution

    The BBC has highlighted how China is investing heavily in science. It highlights 5 key science projects to demonstrate this. One of this is space exploration and the other is the Five-hundred-metre Aperture Spherical Telescope (FAST) - the worlds largest radio telescope.

    http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/resources/...5-92eab6466362


    China is super-sizing science.

    From building the biggest experiments the world has ever seen to rolling out the latest medical advances on a massive scale and pushing the boundaries of exploration from the deepest ocean to outer space - China’s scientific ambitions are immense.

    Just a few decades ago the nation barely featured in the world science rankings. Now, in terms of research spending and the number of scientific papers published, it stands only behind the US.

    But despite this rapid progress, China faces a number of challenges.

    Here are five key science projects that illustrate its enormous strengths, as well as some of its weaknesses, and may help answer the question whether China can become a global leader in research.

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    I flew over Arecibo several times about 30 years ago and took the opportunity to visit. It's a bit like visiting Grand Canyon. No words or photos can convey the sense it inspires. Surely the Chinese machine must be wonderful to see.

    But whoda thunk the Chinese would progress so much? I like it. This can only increase world's % of GDP going to this type of worthy endeavour. It bodes well for us all.

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    Bloomberg News now echos the BBC with today's article.

    https://www.bloomberg.com/graphics/2...ace/china.html

    The launch of the Shenzhou 11 spacecraft in western China last month marked another great leap forward for the nation’s space program and its ambition to send manned missions to the moon and, eventually, Mars. Yet more than national prestige is at stake: China is counting on its space program to pay huge economic dividends.

    China is NASA’s biggest rival in space exploration with plans to land “taikonauts” on the moon by 2036 and Mars thereafter. Along the way, President Xi Jinping hopes the space missions will spawn a wave of Chinese innovation in robotics, aviation and artificial intelligence, among other leading 21st-century technologies.

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    This an article on Chinese Astrophysicist Zhang Shuangnan. Gives you an idea on how the Chinese government is investing on people like him.

    http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1020653.shtml

    Zhang's expertise is in neutron stars, black holes, galaxies and the evolution of the universe through astronomical observation and theoretical calculation. On the side he develops astronomical instruments for space.

    But he also tries to explain science to the public from the angle of beauty, and to study beauty in a scientific way.

    Zhang is in charge of two important projects. One is a probe on China's first space lab, Tiangong-2, to detect the polarization of gamma-ray bursts, and the other is a space telescope, the Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT), to be launched soon.

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    Now Scientific America comes one with an article with what a fantastic year in space and their immediate future plans.

    https://www.scientificamerican.com/a...d-speculation/

    Floating back under parachute from outer space to Inner Mongolia on November 17, China’s Shenzhou-11 astronauts brought to a close the nation’s longest piloted space trek, which lasted 33 days. The mission capped off a year that saw a series of noteworthy successes in China’s blossoming space program, including the country’s sixth manned space mission, the launch of a new space lab module and the inaugural use of a new spaceport. China also opened a world-class radio telescope this year, signaling the country’s growing involvement in space science. These advances, experts say, establish China as one of the top-tier spacefaring nations on Earth and the one with perhaps more momentum than anyone—a status that excites scientists and could inspire other nations to step up their own plans.

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    Yet another example of results from China's investment in science R&D.

    http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1022255.shtml

    A non-toxic propulsion system developed by Chinese scientists will enable satellites to carry more payload and save on satellite launching costs, the system's developer said Tuesday.

    The ammonium dinitramide (ADN) technology used in the system proved successful when it was tested in the Shijian-17 satellite sent into space last month, the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation said in a statement.

    Shijian-17 is tasked with verifying technology for observation of space debris, new electric sources and electric propulsion.

    According to scientists, the propulsion system is meant to help an orbiting satellite sustain its altitude as atmospheric drag and gravity can lead to gradual descent in orbit.

    It will also make China the second country after Sweden to master a non-toxic propulsion technology in orbit, it said.

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    Now Andrew Jones writes on Chinese science ambitions.

    http://gbtimes.com/china/chinas-spac...akthrough-year

    China's National Space Science Centre (NSSC) has unveiled a range of space science missions to be developed over the next five years, following the success of a number of pioneering missions over the last 12 months.

    The missions were selected from a roadmap for a long-term space science program and will delve into some of the most fundamental questions such as the formation and evolution of the universe, the formation and evolution of the solar system, and the study of exoplanets and potential extra-terrestrial life.

    The unveiled missions are a space-weather observatory mission in collaboration with the European Space Agency (SMILE), a global water cycle observation mission (WCOM), the Magnetosphere, Ionosphere and Thermosphere mission (MIT), the Einstein Probe (EP), and the Advanced Space-based Solar Observatory (ASO-S).

    The missions will be overseen and integrated by the NSSC, under the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS).

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    Another article that highlights China is becoming a powerhouse in scientific R&D.

    It is also good to read that, other than NASA, there is no restrictions on American scientists working with their Chinese counterparts.

    http://www.sciencemag.org/careers/fe...-power-science

    After emerging as a trade superpower, China aims to become a leading force in scientific research and applications ranging from cosmology and spaceflight to genomics and medicine. Universities across south China are stepping up the recruitment of scientists with advanced degrees gained in Europe or the United States. This strategy has yielded prestigious science prizes and papers, and generated the growth of scientific research clusters in the region.

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    Quote Originally Posted by selvaarchi View Post
    This an article on Chinese Astrophysicist Zhang Shuangnan. Gives you an idea on how the Chinese government is investing on people like him.

    http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1020653.shtml
    Sounds like a Chinese Carl Sagan.

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    Nice to read about a young persons who joined as a technician and made it up the management tree.

    http://www.shanghaidaily.com/feature.../shdaily.shtml

    Wang started to work as a fitter in a machinery factory in Shanghai’s Minhang District when he was 19. The factory was later known as the Shanghai Aerospace Equipments Manufacturer, one of the most important space manufacturing bases in China.

    “At that time, I was very young, without big ambitions like dreaming of space,” Wang says. “I chose the factory mainly because it was close to my home.”

    Also because of the closeness, Wang would immediately ride on his bike to the factory when there was anything wrong in the laboratory, even at midnight.

    Three years after China unveiled the three-step strategy, the space docking project was launched in 1995.

    “The most difficult thing is to start from nothing,” says Wang. “Because none of us had done this before, there was no standard or material to refer to. We had to explore everything ourselves.”

    Wang and his team’s job was to assemble tens of thousands of components of the docking system in the right place, including 118 sensors, 291 gears, 759 bearing parts and more than 11,000 fasteners.

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    China's achievements in space since 2012.

    This was prepared for the 19th CPC National Congress

    http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1070666.shtml

    Achievements of China's space program since 18th CPC National Congress

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    Andrew Jones writes about China's future space science projects.

    https://gbtimes.com/china-starts-cut...ons-successful

    China has declared its dark matter, x-ray observatory, microgravity and quantum space science missions successful, and is turning attention to a new batch of cutting edge projects.

    The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) last Tuesday declared that the four missions making up its pioneering Strategic Priority Program on Space Science have been successful in terms of science, management and execution.

    The missions, launched between December 2015 and June 2017, are the 'Wukong' (or DAMPE) dark matter probe, the Shijian-10 retrievable satellite, the Quantum Science Satellite 'Mozi', and the Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT), also known as 'Insight'.

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    Chinese researchers help usher in new era in astrophysics

    http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/20..._136686681.htm

    Chinese researchers have played a significant role in opening a new era of "Multimessenger astronomy," marked by the first detection of both electromagnetic radiation and gravitational waves and light in the same cosmic collision.

    The discovery is also the first verification of a "kilonova" explosion, confirming binary neutron star collisions as one source for the universe's heaviest elements, such as gold and uranium.

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    China is planing to use their discarded rocket parts into an in-orbit Internet of Things.

    http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/20..._136811160.htm

    Chinese scientists have turned the final stage of a launch rocket, which is discarded in space after sending a satellite into orbit, into a smart application platform by fitting it with intelligent chips.

    A program carried out by Shanghai-based Fudan University installed several intelligent chips on the final stage of the Long March 4C rocket, which sent the Fengyun-3D satellite into orbit in November.

    Fudan University's Zheng Lirong, the chief scientist of the program, said discarded rocket sections during space launches constitute the largest percentage of space debris. By installing multiple chip systems on the rocket, the team has established the initial stage of a space-based Internet of Things.

    He explained that the launch rocket will jettison a section when it runs out of propellant in order to decrease the mass, and the final stage of the rocket is delivered to the orbit along with the payload.

    "With these intelligent chips attached, space debris can be transformed into a low-cost science experiment and communication platform," he said.

    Zheng's team has taken two years to develop the functional modules and hardware to make the "nanosatellites," with each set of the functional modules weighing less than 30 grams.
    The team has named the intelligent chip system "Xinyun," meaning the cloud of chips.

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    Quote Originally Posted by selvaarchi View Post
    China is planing to use their discarded rocket parts into an in-orbit Internet of Things.

    http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/20..._136811160.htm
    They have already started

    https://gbtimes.com/chinas-new-fengy...-space-program

    Scientists at Shanghai-based Fudan University used the upper stage of the Long March 4C rocket used to launch Fengyun-3D to test new technology.

    According to Xinhua the upper stage, which delivered the satellite and the accompanying HEAD-1 private maritime satellite into preset orbits, was turned into a smart application platform by fitting it with intelligent, 30 gram chips to establish the initial stage of a space-based Internet of Things.

    Discarded rocket stages constitute the largest percentage of space debris according to Fudan's Zheng Lirong, the chief scientist of the program.

    "With these intelligent chips attached, space debris can be transformed into a low-cost science experiment and communication platform," he said.

    The team has named the intelligent chip system "Xinyun," meaning cloud of chips.

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    Another area where China says they have made major advances.

    http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1086246.shtml

    China announced Tuesday that it has successfully conducted the world's first two-way high-speed laser communication test, using a laser communication terminal installed on high-throughput satellite Shijian-13 orbiting 40,000 kilometers above Earth, marking the satellite's official use.

    The successful test shows that the country is at the forefront when it comes to high-speed space information transmission, according to an article posted on the official WeChat public account of the equipment development branch of China's People's Liberation Army Daily.

    Pang Zhihao, a Beijing-based space communication expert, told the Global Times on Tuesday that the satellite, transmitting information on the KA band, can carry more data and has great anti-jamming capabilities compared to traditional ground-based technologies that use lower frequency C and KU bands, enabling better internet access for passengers of planes and high-speed trains.

    The laser communication can also facilitate communication in space, laying a great foundation for the country's future space probe projects, Pang added.

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    China has become the 4th country to do a Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) experiment.

    https://gbtimes.com/china-just-bounc...llo-15-mission

    China has successfully used a 1.2-metre telescope laser ranging system to bounce light off a retroreflector placed on the Moon during NASA's Apollo 15 crewed lunar mission.

    The Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) experiment, a national first, was carried out by the applied astronomy group from the Yunnan Observatories, operating under the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS).

    LLR is used to achieve the highest accuracy measurements of the distance between the Earth and the Moon. Before now, only the US, France and Italy had successfully deployed LLR technology.

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    I apologize Selvaarchi.

    I was posting while grumpy.
    Last edited by BigDon; 2018-Jan-26 at 01:42 AM.
    Time wasted having fun is not time wasted - Lennon
    (John, not the other one.)

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    Yet another area where China has caught up and may be leading!

    http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2018/...rt-empty-space

    "Inside a cramped laboratory in Shanghai, China, physicist Ruxin Li and colleagues are breaking records with the most powerful pulses of light the world has ever seen. At the heart of their laser, called the Shanghai Superintense Ultrafast Laser Facility (SULF), is a single cylinder of titanium-doped sapphire about the width of a Frisbee. After kindling light in the crystal and shunting it through a system of lenses and mirrors, the SULF distills it into pulses of mind-boggling power. In 2016, it achieved an unprecedented 5.3 million billion watts, or petawatts (PW). The lights in Shanghai do not dim each time the laser fires, however. Although the pulses are extraordinarily powerful, they are also infinitesimally brief, lasting less than a trillionth of a second. The researchers are now upgrading their laser and hope to beat their own record by the end of this year with a 10-PW shot, which would pack more than 1000 times the power of all the world's electrical grids combined."

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    Chinese Premier Li Keqiang, speaking at the 13th National People's Congress of China said "China will do more to implement the innovation-driven development strategy".

    http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/201..._137031038.htm

    China will enhance strength in science and technology in the coming years to create more opportunities for itself and the world.

    "China will do more to implement the innovation-driven development strategy", Premier Li Keqiang said Monday when delivering a government work report at the first session of the 13th National People's Congress.

    Li said that application-oriented basic research would be strengthened, a number of science and technology innovation programs be launched, and a number of top national laboratories be set up this year.

    During the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China in October, President Xi Jinping said innovation was the primary driving force behind development and the strategic underpinning for building a modernized economy.

    China aims to make itself a country of innovators, according to Xi.

    At a press conference held Saturday on the sidelines of the session, Wan Gang, minister of science and technology, said China is taking a leading position in strategic hi-tech sectors.

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    Now they want to move from joining large international science projects to leading it.

    http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/201..._137086193.htm

    China aims to organize and launch a series of large international science projects in the coming years to solve important problems in science.

    China will organize and launch one or two large international science projects, and foster three to five projects by 2020. Another six to 10 large projects will be cultivated by 2035 to increase China's influence in the science and technology field, the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) said on Tuesday.

    According to a plan by the ministry, China will develop more large science projects to improve its abilities in scientific and technological innovation and play an important role in international science and technology by the middle of the century.

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    China to launch their First Software-based Satellite.

    http://english.cas.cn/newsroom/news/...9_191507.shtml

    China's first software-based satellite will be launched in the second half of the year, which will largely benefit the public as well as serve national defense, experts said.

    Software-based satellite, which takes advantage of the internet's open source, can work in a way similar to the Android operating system to research and develop its software and hardware. Customers can use the platform to develop, test and debug software, according to an article released on the Chinese Academy of Sciences' (CAS) website.

    "The satellite Tianzhi-1 will be sent mainly to lay the foundation for a network and to test key technologies for the software-defined satellite system. We are planning to send one satellite each year to enrich the system," Zhao Junsuo, a research fellow at the CAS Institute of Software where the satellite was developed, told the Global Times on Sunday.

    Software-defined satellites' operating system is software-based and open to public use, unlike traditional satellites, Zhao said, adding that the satellite could also be used in national defense.

    The Tianzhi-1 project, supported by CAS' Bureau of Major R&D Program, formally began in 2017 and is expected to be launched in the second half of the year and will conduct in-orbit experimental verification, chinanews.com reported Saturday.

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    Thanks selvaarchi for sharing the links. I've been extremely impressed with the speed at which the Chinese space program has quite literally gotten off the ground. I hope their efforts at a second generation space station are successful!

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    Quote Originally Posted by Cosmic Mathew View Post
    Thanks selvaarchi for sharing the links. I've been extremely impressed with the speed at which the Chinese space program has quite literally gotten off the ground. I hope their efforts at a second generation space station are successful!
    You are welcome.

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    "Scientists have published the first global CO2 maps compiled using data collected by China's TanSat."

    http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/Fi..._data_999.html

    The maps, published in the journal Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, are powered by TanSat observations made between April and July 2017. Researchers expect the maps and related data to help scientists build more accurate climate models.

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    China is working on wireless charging for rockets.

    http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/201..._137117796.htm

    As wireless charging technology improves, small electronic devices such as mobile phones and electric toothbrushes can now be charged without any direct access to a power source.

    China's space scientists are now exploring ways of using the same wireless charging systems in rocket design.

    According to Liu Fei, the project manager at the China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (CALT), dozens of devices in any rocket, including the control system and telemetry, still need to be connected with the power sources by cable.

    "Cables weighing hundreds of kilograms form a huge network with a wide variety of hidden dangers and a multitude of potential problems," Liu said.

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    China develops a underwater training suit for astronauts.

    http://www.cctvplus.com/news/2018042...ml#!language=1

    China's self-developed underwater training suit for astronauts has made its debut on Friday in Beijing at a summit forum about the development strategy of space medico-engineering.

    The suit is designed for astronauts to carry out underwater trainings which are important for them to get used to the weightless environment in space.
    The China Astronaut Research and Training Center started to develop the training suit in 2014 and has overcame many technological problems, such as control of pressure and temperature-humidity, acquisition and transmission of signal and voice in the state of neutral buoyancy.

  28. #28
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    Here are 3 more examples of China investing in its future.

    http://www.spacetechasia.com/china-d...ht-propulsion/

    China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (CALT), the rocket development arm of the Chinese space programme, revealed that it has designed a graphene composite film suitable for use in light-propelled spacecraft.

    This is part of CALT’s research on graphene-based spacecraft propulsion, a new technology that converts light into electrical energy. The method utilizes a technology similar to the solar sail, which was already tested by Japan’s space agency JAXA during its IKAROS mission to Venus. Unlike the solar sail, however, the graphene sail will not use thin-film solar cells, but will instead be covered with graphene film, a two-dimensional material known for its strength and conductivity.

    Like the solar sail, graphene-based propulsion will use radiation pressure, making use of solar energy for propulsion. However, according to CALT, research in China has shown that graphene can be up to 1000 times more effective.
    http://www.china.org.cn/china/2018-0...t_51093726.htm

    The city government of Wenchang, home of China's first tropical and coastal space launch center, announced recently that it plans to build an aerospace supercomputing center and a big data industry cluster project in the near future.

    A key part of Wenchang's program for developing a space science and technology city, the supercomputing center will help promote coordinated industrial growth of local information technology, aerospace equipment research and design, as well as life science research through the application of high-performance computing, cloud computing, big data and artificial intelligence, a document from the city government said.

    When completed, the supercomputing center will play an important role in promoting the country's satellite application research and development, the application of high-resolution data and development of a big data industry around spatial information.

    The city will also help build an industrial platform for spatial big data and a spatial remote-sensing cloud big data platform to serve countries participating in the Belt and Road Initiative, city officials said.
    http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/201..._137153815.htm

    Building a space station, probing Mars, setting up a lunar base and going deeper into the universe - artificial intelligence will be at the cutting edge of China's space odyssey.

    China is stepping up development of artificial intelligence (AI) technology to support its space programs, Zhang Duzhou, a member of the Chinese Association of Automation and the Chinese Society of Astronautics, told a space conference in Harbin, capital of northeast China's Heilongjiang Province.

    Back in 1995, Yang Jiachi, a leading contributor to the development of China's first satellite about half a century ago, proposed developing technology for the intelligent autonomous control of spacecraft.

    Experts are now developing AI technologies in visual image recognition, visual tracking, rendezvous and docking, navigation and positioning, mission planning and spacecraft fault diagnosis, said Zhang.

  29. #29
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    China is investing heavily in AI to catch up with the USA by 2030.

    https://www.cnbc.com/2018/05/04/chin...l-stop-it.html

    As U.S. and Chinese officials engage in highly anticipated trade talks, officials from China have asserted that it will not discuss two of the biggest trade demands from the United States. One is about the U.S. trade deficit; the other is an issue that could become the greatest technology war in history: China's push into artificial intelligence.

    The United States has good reason to be concerned about China's hard stance. While the ongoing trade war is grabbing all the headlines, it's the tussle for dominance in the A.I. space that could shape the economic fortunes of the two world powers. Overshadowed by the dazzling A.I. advances made by the United States so far, China has been silently but resolutely building an ecosystem that is feeding and fueling its ambition to become a world leader in A.I. by 2030.

    Home to tech behemoths like Google, Microsoft, IBM and Apple, the United States is where the bulk of A.I. innovation has taken place. However, there are growing indications that China, with its own army of tech heavy hitters such as Alibaba, Tencent, and Baidu, is moving rapidly to close the gap. For one, the Asian economic giant has all the ingredients it needs to upstage Silicon Valley: generous government coffers, large population, a thriving research community and a society eager for technological change. Its investment in A.I., chips and electrics cars combined has been estimated at $300 billion.

    In line with its 2030 vision, the government of Tianjin, a city a couple of hours from Beijing, plans to build a $5 billion fund to support the A.I. development. Money being no object, China is also building a giant $2.1 billion technology park to facilitate A.I. innovation. In a red-hot market for tech, China's A.I. start-ups can raise funds with relative ease. Investors poured $4.5 billion into more than 200 Chinese A.I. companies between 2012 and 2017, according to a white paper produced by Kai-Fu Lee, a former Google and Microsoft executive who now leads a venture-capital firm, Sinovation Ventures.

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    China has successfully tested a landing system for celestial bodies with thin atmosphere.

    http://www.ecns.cn/news/sci-tech/201...h5545069.shtml

    China has successfully experimented with its space program's inflatable reentry and descent technology (IRDT), a technology that can allow China to land heavier spacecraft on celestial bodies with thin atmosphere, including the moon and Mars, specialists said.

    The experiment, the first of its kind in China, China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC) recently conducted on IRDT successfully validated working principles, working process and multiple key technologies, Science and Technology Daily reported on Wednesday.

    The tested space vehicle was shaped like a flying saucer and covered in thick air bags - key components to the IRDT system. IRDT is a new integrated inflatable heat insulating deceleration system that can land spacecraft without heat shields and parachutes, the Beijing-based newspaper said.

    Landing systems using technology like this can handle more weight than with deceleration systems of earlier generations. It will provide a more effective landing approach that would allow heavier spacecraft to land, Pang Zhihao, a Beijing-based rocket and aerospace expert, told the Global Times on Wednesday.

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