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Thread: How long until we colonize the moon (continued)

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    How long until we colonize the moon (continued)

    This thread continues one that got too large for its own good. Here's the first post from that thread...

    Quote Originally Posted by selvaarchi View Post
    The moon is our nearest neighbor but other then visiting it 40 years ago we still do not have humans living there. China has a active rover on the moon and Russia has plans to further explore the moon. Will China or Russia be the first to have a permanent base there, or will there be an international based team living there? How long before that happens?
    ...and you can read more here: How long until we colonize the moon
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    ESA is putting an initial infrastructure in place for the moon village - communications.

    http://www.leonarddavid.com/moonboun...mmercial-node/

    There are new partnerships afoot that make the commercial lunar economy a potential actuality. A newly-inked collaboration agreement is geared to commercial Moon missions.

    In this instance, the European Space Agency partnered with the U.K.’s Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) group and the Goonhilly Earth Station in Cornwall, England.

    Goonhilly is an independent, privately-owned business providing a complete range of satellite communications services and a range of space and data related services.

    No stranger to lunar exploration duties, Goonhilly beamed the Apollo 11 Moon landing to millions of viewers in 1969. The new partnership, dubbed the Lunar Pathfinder mission – steps forward to implement a sustainable, long-term commercial service that supports lunar scientific and economic development, both for Europe and other nations.

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    I take this article as confirming, China is actively pursuing a manned lunar program.

    http://www.ecns.cn/2018/04-26/300488.shtml

    China has the technological basis for a manned lunar landing, says Zhou Jianping, chief designer of China's manned space program.

    Human exploration of the universe would not stop in low-Earth orbit as China was drawing up the blueprint for manned space development after the construction of its space station, Zhou told a space conference in Harbin, capital of northeast China's Heilongjiang Province.

    With Mars as a long-term target and the Moon as a transition goal, manned lunar expeditions were a focus for global space activities.

    "We have had in-depth discussions with many experts about manned lunar exploration, and conducted research on key technologies in recent years," Zhou said.

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    NASA just cancelled its moon rover!!!

    https://www.theverge.com/2018/4/27/1...rospector-moon

    NASA is pulling the plug on its only planned robotic mission to the Moon’s surface. The space agency has reportedly canceled its Resource Prospector — a small rover that was designed to excavate materials such as hydrogen, oxygen, and water from the lunar poles. The move has angered many lunar scientists, and now they’re calling on NASA’s new administrator to keep the program alive, claiming it’s a crucial mission to help return humans back to the Moon.

    The main goal of Resource Prospector was to help NASA better understand what kind of materials are lurking at the Moon’s poles. Multiple lunar spacecraft have proven that water exists there in the form of ice, but we don’t know much about what this ice is like. Most of the data we have comes from NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, which is in the Moon’s orbit, and a couple of spacecraft that purposefully crashed into the Moon to get quick measurements of the surface’s composition. The Resource Prospector would examine this water ice up-close for an extended period of time, learning more about its consistency and how much of it is out there.

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    Quote Originally Posted by selvaarchi View Post
    NASA just cancelled its moon rover!!!

    https://www.theverge.com/2018/4/27/1...rospector-moon
    NASA has clarified the cancellation of Resource Prospector was because they plan to use commercial partners to do that.

    http://spacenews.com/nasa-emphasizes...-cancellation/

    A lunar rover mission that struggled to win support at NASA, even after a change in space exploration policy, will no longer be pursued as the agency turns its attention to commercial lunar lander services.

    In a brief statement late April 27, NASA confirmed it no longer planned to fly the Resource Prospector (RP) mission, a lunar rover intended to travel into permanently shadowed regions of the lunar poles and assess the ability to extract water ice, a potentially valuable resource for future human missions.

    Instead, the agency said, selected but unspecified instruments from RP will instead be flown on future commercial lunar lander missions under a new Commercial Lunar Payload Services (CLPS) program. NASA released a draft request for proposals for that program April 27.

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    China has demonstrated that we do not need that much supplies from earth with its simulated moon base. 4 students stayed in the habitat for one year with only 2% of their requirements obtained from the outside.

    http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/201..._137180976.htm

    Chinese volunteers have completed a one-year test living in a simulated space lab in Beijing, setting a new record for the longest stay in a self-contained cabin.

    Four students, two males and two females, emerged from the Yuegong-1, or Lunar Palace 1, at Beihang University to the applause of academicians, researchers and fellow students Tuesday.

    The total length of the test, which started on May 10 last year, was 370 days, with the third stage accounting for 110 days.

    Liu Hong, chief designer of Yuegong-1, said the test marked the longest stay in a bioregenerative life support system (BLSS), in which humans, animals, plants and microorganisms co-exist in a closed environment, simulating a lunar base. Oxygen, water and food are recycled within the BLSS, creating an Earth-like environment.

    "The system is 98 percent self-sufficient. It has been stable and effective in providing life support for its passengers," she said.

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    Quote Originally Posted by selvaarchi View Post
    China has demonstrated that we do not need that much supplies from earth with its simulated moon base. 4 students stayed in the habitat for one year with only 2% of their requirements obtained from the outside.

    http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/201..._137180976.htm
    A 2 minute video on the moon base included in this article.

    https://gbtimes.com/lunar-palace-1-a...t?cat=business

    Four Chinese students this week emerged from the final stretch of a 370-day experiment inside a self-contained lunar analogue training habitat. The video above offers a look inside the facility, as well as the experiences of the volunteers.

    The mission, which ended on Tuesday, was designed to simulate, and provide lessons for, a habitat on the surface of the Moon, as well as test bioregenerative life support systems.

    The experiment began on May 10 last year with a 60-day stay inside the 160-square-metre and 500-cubic-metre YueGong-1 (月宫一号), followed by the second group replacing the first for a 200-day stint between July 9, 2017 and January 26 this year.

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    The Planetary Society carries an article "How are we preparing astronauts for a return to the Moon?".

    http://www.planetary.org/blogs/guest...stronauts.html

    Returning to the Moon won’t be easy, even though we’ve been there before. In a way, it’s going to be more difficult precisely because we’ve already been there. Thanks to Apollo and a host of remote sensing observations, we know vastly more about the Moon now than we did before humanity’s first landing. New knowledge breeds ever more scientific questions about the Moon’s origin and evolution, while from a technical standpoint, looking back on Apollo teaches us priceless lessons on how to explore another world. This combined body of scientific and technical knowledge gives rise to a daunting list of new challenges that must be overcome before renewed exploration. Fortunately, several talks and posters throughout the 2018 Lunar and Planetary Science Conference demonstrated that countless people around the world are working to prepare Moon-bound astronauts to hit the ground running – once they get used to running in one-sixth g, of course.

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    Surprise Australia might be going to the moon!!! This might become a reality as Jeff Bezos has invited them to join him on his journey to the moon.

    https://www.innovationaus.com/2018/0...o-space-agency

    Blue Origin, Amazon founder and CEO Jeff Bezos’ ambitious, privately-funded aerospace venture company has formally invited the Federal Government’s nascent national space agency to play a role in its mission to achieve space tourism and establish a lunar presence.

    Blue Origin commercial director, Ted McFarland, this week used the Australasian Satellite forum in Sydney as a platform to issue the invitation and told InnovationAus.com that it was more than just a goodwill gesture on the company’s part.

    “We would really like to explore it,” Mr McFarland said. “There’s a lot of talent here. There’s a lot of land here. So, if I want to put in a space tourism business, I think you’ve got some land available and I think you’ve got some great people to work on the problem. So, yeah, this is a formal invitation to discuss.”

    Mr McFarland said that the Australian agency would be a particularly attractive candidate to play a role in Blue Origin’s lunar missions, collectively known as “Blue Moon”.

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    NASA hopes to begin buying rides to the moon by year end. Only thing is, so far I have not read of any commercial companies that will be offering the service. Even small commercial launch companies are just getting into stride.

    http://spacenews.com/nasa-to-buy-rid...-by-years-end/

    NASA intends to begin buying rides on small commercial lunar landers by the end of the year and start looking for miniature instruments for those flights.

    “We have a strong push to get a lander service to the Moon as quickly as possible,” James Reuter, NASA deputy associate administrator for the Space Technology Mission Directorate, said May 24 at the Space Tech Expo here. “We think the capability is there in industry for us to do that.”

    NASA released a draft Request for Proposals in April for the Commercial Lunar Payload Services program. Through the program, NASA intends to buy rides on landers capable of delivering ten kilograms to the lunar surface by the end of 2021. A final RFP will be issued this summer and “we intend to award by the end of the calendar year,” Reuter said.

    “To make this work as a commercial service, we want to be a primary customer, but not the only customer,” Reuter said. “That will be part of our decision-making. We are nominally thinking we will sponsor at least one flight a year.”

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    "Bezos outlines vision of Blue Origin’s lunar future"

    http://spacenews.com/bezos-outlines-...-lunar-future/

    Jeff Bezos, the billionaire founder of Blue Origin, says he supports a human return to the moon in cooperation with other nations, as other company officials suggest planning is underway for an announcement about such efforts later this year.

    Bezos, speaking at the International Space Development Conference here May 25, said a permanent human presence on the moon was essential to his long-term vision of millions of people living and working in space.

    “Today, we must go back to the moon, and this time to stay,” he said in an on-stage interview with journalist Alan Boyle after accepting the National Space Society’s Gerard K. O’Neill Memorial Award, named after the physicist who proposed the concept of space colonies more than 40 years ago.

    Bezos said he was a “big fan” of the Trump administration’s space exploration policy that calls for a human return to the moon prior to going to Mars. “I don’t like to skip steps, and I always thought that this idea of going to Mars without building a permanent base on the moon would end the same way Apollo did, where we would do it, there would be a ticker-tape parade, and then 50 years of nothing.”

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    China to purchase RITEG (Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator) from Russia for their Luna programme.

    http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/NN...-08061802.html

    The third agreement envisages the supply of equipment, fuel, and services for the CNNC-developed CFR-600 fast reactor pilot project. The fourth concerns the supply of radionuclide heat units (UHR) used as parts of radioisotope thermoelectric generators to power equipment in China's space programme, for use in lunar exploration in particular, Rosatom said.

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    Ever wondered how much a moon rock may we worth? Then read on

    https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/...=.a9137f2e2bd9

    A Tennessee woman is suing NASA for the right to keep a vial of what she says is moon dust, given to her by astronaut Neil Armstrong in the 1970s.

    The financial stakes in the lawsuit are potentially quite high: Just last summer, for instance, a bag containing a trace of moon dust from Apollo 11 sold at auction for $1.8 million. The Tennessee woman, Laura Cicco, has a lot more than just a trace: “probably 10 to 15 cubic centimeters” of the stuff, her lawyer estimates.

    Putting a valuation on that much moon dust is nearly impossible, given the rarity of the material and the legal murkiness surrounding ownership of it (more on that in a bit). But that doesn't mean we can't try.

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    All eyes are on the moon!!!

    https://asia.nikkei.com/Business/Sci...-the-spotlight

    The moon is back in the telescopes of the world's scientists as major powers -- notably China and the U.S. -- as well as some highflying companies, push their space programs to new frontiers.

    In the next chapter of this great space adventure, the moon has a key role to play, both as a potential base for further exploration and as a treasure chest of key resources -- most importantly, water.

    "When it comes to developing resources in space, water comes first," said Hideaki Miyamoto, a professor and expert on space resources at the University of Tokyo.

    But why search for water on the moon when there is so much on Earth?

    It all has to do with rocket fuel.

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    Vegetables grown in Antarctic greenhouse EDEN ISS give hope to scientist to do the same on the moon and Mars.

    http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/201..._137279893.htm

    The Antarctic greenhouse EDEN ISS has reached full operation, providing valuable experience for future plant breeding on Mars and moon, the German Aerospace Center (DLR) announced on Monday.

    In contrast to previous plant breeding experiments in Antarctica, the EDEN ISS greenhouse is characterized by a closed cycle in which all water not contained in the fruits and plants is reused, analogous to subsequent use in space travel or in deserts on earth.

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    Russia has started work on a shuttle to take humans from the Deep Space Gateway to the moon.

    http://tass.com/science/1011812

    Russia’s Energia Rocket and Space Corporation has started creating a module for landing cosmonauts on the Moon, Energia said in an annual report on Tuesday.

    "Work has been launched to develop the technical design of the lunar take-off and landing module, for which a super-heavy carrier rocket will be used for its delivery to the near-Moon orbit," the document says.

    Parts of the take-off and landing module will be delivered to the Deep Space Gateway international lunar orbital platform in their disassembled state where they will be finally assembled and stored and where their maintenance will be carried out, according to Energia’s report.

    "The Gateway station will make it possible to test the basic technologies for the crew’s stay in deep space and deliver the first missions of automated and manned spacecraft to the Moon’s surface, and also test technologies and elements as part of preparations for the manned missions to Mars," the report says.

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    A moon landing in 5 years! That is Blue Origin's target. Wish them luck.

    https://www.geekwire.com/2018/blue-o...ar-settlement/

    Blue Origin, the space venture founded by Amazon billionaire Jeff Bezos, is laying out a plan to support the creation of permanent settlements on the moon, starting with a lunar landing mission within the next five years.

    The Kent, Wash.-based company’s roadmap was laid out most recently last week during the Space Frontier Foundation’s NewSpace conference in Renton, Wash.

    Blue Origin’s business development director, A.C. Charania, said the company’s Blue Moon program is “our first step to developing a lunar landing capability for the country, for other customers internationally, to be able to land multi metric tons on the lunar surface.”

    “Any permanent human presence on the lunar surface will require such a capability,” he said.

    Charania said “we’re actively working on the descent stage for Blue Moon, the capabilities, the partnerships that are required to enable that service … to start going back to the moon with larger and larger payloads.”

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    How toxic is lunar dust? ESA is conducting tests to find out.

    http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Hu...de_of_the_Moon

    When the Apollo astronauts returned from the Moon, the dust that clung to their spacesuits made their throats sore and their eyes water. Lunar dust is made of sharp, abrasive and nasty particles, but how toxic is it for humans?

    The “lunar hay fever”, as NASA astronaut Harrison Schmitt described it during the Apollo 17 mission created symptoms in all 12 people who have stepped on the Moon. From sneezing to nasal congestion, in some cases it took days for the reactions to fade. Inside the spacecraft, the dust smelt like burnt gunpowder.

    The Moon missions left an unanswered question of lunar exploration – one that could affect humanity’s next steps in the Solar System: can lunar dust jeopardise human health?

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    nbcnews on how future habitats on the moon and mars will look like.

    https://www.nbcnews.com/mach/science...ook-ncna889341

    British architect Norman Foster is known for his designs here on Earth, but now his firm Foster + Partners is looking to expand its portfolio into the cosmos, with futuristic-looking designs for colonies on Mars and the moon.

    The lunar and Martian habitats will be on display at the Goodwood Festival of Speed in Chichester, England, being held from July 12 to 15. A virtual reality demonstration will allow people to "walk" around the habitats on the Red Planet, and attendees will also be able to steer miniature remote-control robots around a Mars-like sand pit.

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    China and Russia to cooperate more on moon exploration in the next few years. Hope more details will be released soon.

    http://tass.com/science/1012737

    The program of Russian-Chinese cooperation in outer space for 2018-2022 will be supplemented with projects related to the Moon’s exploration, the press office of Russia’s State Space Corporation Roscosmos said on Wednesday.

    This decision was made at a session of the joint working group of the two countries on cooperation in outer space, Roscosmos said.

    "During the session, the Russian and Chinese sides discussed the implementation of bilateral cooperation in outer space for 2018-2022, as a result of which a joint decision was made to supplement this cooperation program with the projects related to the study and exploration of the Moon," Roscosmos said.

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    An article from "The Hill" on three countries who hope to launch rovers to the moon by the end of the year. It also gives what Russia and US plans are for the moon.

    http://thehill.com/opinion/technolog...go-to-the-moon

    Interest in exploring Earth’s nearest neighbor has not been so intense since the days of the Apollo program almost 50 years ago. The 21st-century race back to the moon is no longer limited to the U.S. and Russia, as three other contenders will launch expeditions to the lunar surface later this year.

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    This is not an article - it is an opinion piece.

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    "Experts gathered last month for a Space Resources Roundtable, held here at the Colorado School of Mines. The Roundtable and the Planetary & Terrestrial Mining Sciences Symposium were staged in collaboration with the Lunar and Planetary Institute."

    One of the conclusions from this gathering was that mining for water from the moon might be feasible in 10 years time.

    https://www.space.com/41164-mining-m...ake-shape.html

    A diverse range of scientists, engineers and mining technologists have begun blueprinting what hardware and missions are required to explore and establish a prospecting campaign for water ice at the poles of Earth's moon.

    Why have they warmed up to ultra-cold lunar ice? Water ice can be converted to oxygen, liquid water and rocket fuel. Exploiting the stores of this resource — which is thought to be abundant within permanently shadowed polar craters on the moon — could help pioneers survive and thrive on the moon, and help entrepreneurs turn a profit.

    For example, United Launch Alliance is maintaining its $3,000-per-kilogram ($1,360 per lb.) offer, first made in 2016, for moon-derived propellant delivered to low Earth orbit. The satellite communications industry could well be the first market for space resources.

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    This article implies the Chinese are encouraging the Europeans to join their moon base instead of NASA’s lunar gateway. I do not think the Europeans will be able to do both.

    https://arstechnica.com/science/2018...lunar-gateway/

    This week, the European and Chinese space agencies held a workshop in Amsterdam to discuss cooperation between Europe and China on lunar science missions. The meeting comes as Europe seems increasingly content to work with China on spaceflight programs.

    Although the meeting is not being streamed online, space systems designer and lunar exploration enthusiast Angeliki Kapoglou has been providing some coverage of the meeting via Twitter. Among the most interesting things she has shared are slides from a presentation by Pei Zhaoyu, who is deputy director of the Lunar Exploration and Space Program Center of the China National Space Administration.

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    Quote Originally Posted by selvaarchi View Post
    This article implies the Chinese are encouraging the Europeans to join their moon base instead of NASA’s lunar gateway. I do not think the Europeans will be able to do both.

    https://arstechnica.com/science/2018...lunar-gateway/
    NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine discuss future international cooperation for the ISS and the Lunar Orbital Platform-Gateway.

    https://spacenews.com/bridenstine-di...ion-in-europe/

    NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine said July 17 that he’s had good discussions with European officials here about potential cooperation on NASA’s plans to return to the moon.

    In a brief interview after a panel discussion at the Farnborough International Airshow, Bridenstine described the meetings he’s held during the event, including with the heads of the European Space Agency and national space agencies, as “fantastic” and said more details about the agency’s “exploration campaign” plans, such as the Lunar Orbital Platform-Gateway, could be released this fall.

    “There’s a lot of support for, ultimately, our next big exploration campaign, which includes the moon,” he said. “We’re putting together concepts and ideas from our international partners for who can plug in where.”

    Discussion of NASA’s lunar exploration campaign was one topic of Bridenstine’s discussion with Jan Woerner, director general of ESA, according to a tweet from Bridenstine’s account. Other topics of that discussion included the ESA-provided Orion service module that has suffered development delays, space traffic management, space weather and ESA’s commitment to launch NASA’s long-delayed James Webb Space Telescope.

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    http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018LPI....49.1351S

    Lunar Caves: Cosmic Potential

    Sharma, R. S.; Mardon, A. A. M.
    03/2018

    The Moon has much unexplored potential. Recent discoveries could help NASA, and others, colonize the Moon before moving on to Mars.
    There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjecture out of such a trifling investment of fact.
    Mark Twain, Life on the Mississippi (1883)

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    http://theconversation.com/five-reas...he-moon-101683

    Editorial on returning to the Moon, after learning about difficulties with terraforming Mars.

    Personally, I'd like robotic crews to build space colonies on the Moon for groups who can afford it, but at least send more rovers to explore the Moon in depth.
    There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjecture out of such a trifling investment of fact.
    Mark Twain, Life on the Mississippi (1883)

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    Quote Originally Posted by Roger E. Moore View Post
    http://theconversation.com/five-reas...he-moon-101683

    Editorial on returning to the Moon, after learning about difficulties with terraforming Mars.

    Personally, I'd like robotic crews to build space colonies on the Moon for groups who can afford it, but at least send more rovers to explore the Moon in depth.
    Here I agree with you and the golden age of robotic missions to the moon is just round the corner. There have been delays but we do already have rovers built by several countries waiting for the right opportunity to be launched to the moon.

    At the moment China's Chang'e 4 might be the first off the starting block in December this year. Following closely behind them is Israel (a private company and not the government) and India in 1st quarter next year. All the other major space fairings countries including South Korea have plans to do the same in the next 5 years. In this list are several American commercial companies as well.
    I am because we are
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    Water ice CONFIRMED on the Moon! Indian spacecraft proves pockets of ice scattered across lunar poles.

    https://phys.org/news/2018-08-ice-moon-poles.html
    There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjecture out of such a trifling investment of fact.
    Mark Twain, Life on the Mississippi (1883)

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    Quote Originally Posted by Roger E. Moore View Post
    Water ice CONFIRMED on the Moon! Indian spacecraft proves pockets of ice scattered across lunar poles.

    https://phys.org/news/2018-08-ice-moon-poles.html
    The information taken from the report gives hope it will be much easier to mine miin water.

    https://www.businessinsider.my/moon-...8-8/?r=US&IR=T

    Shadowy craters near the moon’s poles may hide untold reserves of ice – an incredibly precious resource in space – within reach of robotic and human explorers.

    That’s one big takeaway from a new study published Monday in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The researchers took data from US and Indian lunar spacecraft, then compared it to computer simulations of how surface ice might look to those robots.

    Their model detected hundreds of locations on the moon where ice may lurk very close to or directly at the moon’s surface.
    I am because we are
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