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Thread: Kīlauea Activity

  1. #91
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    Given what "we" know about the structure and eruptive history of Kilauea, there's a very good chance that magma will return to the caldera and Halemaʻumaʻu crater. At some point the dynamics or cycles that drive the rift eruptions will shift, stopping the flow of magma into the fissures. Even with the crater filling in with the various summit collapses, that part of the volcano represents a "weak" area that the repressurized magma can move back into and begin the process again. It might be worth it to look up the histories (native and European) of Kilauea to get a sense of how "normal" this event is, and how often magma has retreated and returned to the summit.

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  2. #92
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    Quote Originally Posted by Selfsim View Post
    What I'd like to know, (if answerable), is whether the now mostly devoid of magma, Halemaʻumaʻu caldera, can ever refill once again?

    If the magma 'streams' from the fissures can solidify all the way from the coastal outfalls back to the fissure(s), then can the fissure(s), themselves, also seal over and force the fluid magma to well up all the way back to the main caldera? I guess if the subsurface magma reservoir outflows and pressures ever subside enough for the ocean outfalls to solidify again, then the caldera could again refill .. however, this would now seem unlikely, and fissure 8 may end up being be Pele's new residence .. (or maybe her retirement home?)

    And what about Puʻu ʻŌʻō? I think its level has dropped during this event as well. What's going to happen there?
    Quote Originally Posted by Trebuchet View Post
    "Ever" is a really long time. I'd think it might not take that long at all. The current east rift zone event is nothing new -- similar events have occurred many times, including the Kapoho eruption of 1960. The eruption map also shows flows right in this area from 1955. Eventually the underground plumbing will clog, or the lava supply will be reduced, and this event will come to an end. I'd guess (and IANAG) this will probably happen before the end of this year. Activity will then return (eventually) to the summit and/or Pu'u O'o.
    And here's a USGS page about a similar collapse/explosive event in 1924. And the top "geology and history" page showing almost the entire surface of the east corner of the island to be less than 1000 years old. It's cyclical, and will continue to be for a long time.
    Cum catapultae proscriptae erunt tum soli proscript catapultas habebunt.

  3. #93
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    Quote Originally Posted by Trebuchet View Post
    And here's a USGS page about a similar collapse/explosive event in 1924. And the top "geology and history" page showing almost the entire surface of the east corner of the island to be less than 1000 years old. It's cyclical, and will continue to be for a long time.
    Ya .. thanks. And thanks to CJSF, too. Much appreciated.
    I was reading up on that last night and watching some documentaries on the history of it all.
    I suppose if its all so regular/predictable and rather 'business as usual' then one has to wonder why they allowed building major housing estates in the already known rift zones .. more a rhetorical question here .. (and posed numerous times here also I notice) .. but is also one posed frequently in the documentaries.

    Anyway, if the caldera level continues to drop (due to fissure 8 discharge) then it seems it may enter the explosive phase again. (This is apparently expected 'imminently' in geological times).
    Is anyone measuring the magma levels in the caldera? I've seen the satellite photos, but I haven't found any 'dipstick' measurements online. (Perhaps the 'dipper' fried whilst doing their job and they need a replacement? )
    I guess they rely on the summit (and flank) deformation data for that, but it indicates more the shift in subterrranian magma, rather than the actual depth in the caldera (the latter of which is the key measurement for predicting a sustained explosive phase?)

  4. #94
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    Quote Originally Posted by Selfsim View Post
    ... then one has to wonder why they allowed building major housing estates in the already known rift zones .. more a rhetorical question here .. (and posed numerous times here also I notice) .. but is also one posed frequently in the documentaries.
    Yup. Private property rights are held rather sacred in the USA. That doesn't mean insurance companies have to issue policies, of course. In my part of the world, people keep building houses in flood plains, and worse, like the lahar zone of Orting, WA. It's not a question of IF Orting will be covered by feet of steaming mud, just when.
    Cum catapultae proscriptae erunt tum soli proscript catapultas habebunt.

  5. #95
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    Though of course if people only lived somewhere geologically stable, with no danger of flood, hurricane, tsunami, or tornado, it would start severely limiting where humans could live. Which is not to say I'd move to Orting.
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  6. #96
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    Indeed. One of these days the Cascadia Subduction Zone is going to slip.
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  7. #97
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    Lava flies through roof of Hawaii tour boat, injuring 13:

    A 20-year-old woman suffered major leg trauma, and other passengers had burns and scrapes, the state Department of Land and Natural Resources said.
    The people were aboard a tour boat that takes visitors to see lava plunging into the ocean from a volcano that has been erupting for two months. Several companies operate such tours.

  8. #98
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    This is the explosion that apparently caused the damage to the boat and the associated injuries. The video was taken from another boat.

    https://youtu.be/tAFML5DILM0

  9. #99
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    Quote Originally Posted by schlaugh View Post
    This is the explosion that apparently caused the damage to the boat and the associated injuries. The video was taken from another boat.

    https://youtu.be/tAFML5DILM0
    Wow!

    Steam explosion? Looks like maybe some kind of 'plug' gave way and let a whole lot of hotter liquid lava loose? Maybe triggered by a cliff collapse or something?

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  11. #101
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    Continuing summit earthquakes are causing highway damage.

    LINK

    State Highways reports that the 5.3-magnitude collapse event which occurred at 8:54 p.m. has caused additional damage to Highway 11 between the 28 and 32 Mile Markers near Volcano.

    Motorists are urged to drive with extreme caution in the area.

    The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory reports a collapse event with energy equal to a 5.3 magnitude earthquake has occurred at Halema‘uma‘u Crater at 8:54 p.m. on July 22.
    For those not familiar with this, highway 11 is the main highway from Hilo to the the West side of the island, along the southern half and through Volcano National Park.
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  12. #102
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    It's been pretty boring lately, with each days status report pretty much a carbon copy of the one before -- fissure 8 still feeding lava into the ocean, another collapse event at the summit. Eventually fissure eight will slow down and stop and then we'll see what happens at the summit. For now, however, it just keeps on keeping on.
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  13. #103
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    Fissure eight will grow and accept all magma from former summit.
    Kilauea will go extinct, and we'll have to find a new name for growing mountain at fissure eight.
    They'll have to shift park boundaries at enormous expense.
    Magma McMagmaface will not be accepted as name for new volcano.
    Perhaps "Suburb's doom"?

  14. #104
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    Quote Originally Posted by Squink View Post
    Fissure eight will grow and accept all magma from former summit.
    Kilauea will go extinct, and we'll have to find a new name for growing mountain at fissure eight.
    They'll have to shift park boundaries at enormous expense.
    Magma McMagmaface will not be accepted as name for new volcano.
    Perhaps "Suburb's doom"?
    There is literally no evidence this will or can happen. At all.

    CJSF
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  15. #105
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    Quote Originally Posted by CJSF View Post
    There is literally no evidence this will or can happen. At all.

    CJSF
    And the evidence of the dozens of old craters along the east rift zone confirms that. This current event is something that has happened over and over through the past several thousand years. It is, however rift eruptions that have been contributing most to the growth of the island.
    Cum catapultae proscriptae erunt tum soli proscript catapultas habebunt.

  16. #106
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    New things, such as the breakup of Gondwana, do occasionally happen.
    Trebuchet, is likely correct, but we cannot know until whatever happens, happens.
    Hawaii does after all consist of a string of islands.

  17. #107
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    Isn't the next island supposed to be Loihi?
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  18. #108
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    Yes, but we won't see it in our lifetimes.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L%C5%8D%CA%BBihi_Seamount
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  19. #109
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    Things have quieted down the past couple of days, with lower lava output from fissure 8 and less seismic activity at the summit. However, as noted by USGS:
    Summit and LERZ changes considered together imply that the rate of magma leaving the summit to feed the Lower East Rift Zone eruption has decreased. How long this condition will persist is unknown. It is possible that outflow will pick up again, resulting in renewed summit area deflation leading to another collapse event and renewed eruption vigor on the LERZ.
    Cum catapultae proscriptae erunt tum soli proscript catapultas habebunt.

  20. #110
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    Things continue to be quieter

    nps.gov
    Wednesday, August 15, 2018, 12:42 PM HST

    Kīlauea summit and lower East Rift Zone

    Kīlauea Volcano has remained quiet for well over a week now, with no further collapse events at the summit, and, with the exception of a small, crusted-over pond of lava deep inside the fissure 8 cone and a few scattered ocean entries, no lava flowing in the lower East Rift Zone (LERZ).

    Earthquake and deformation data show no net accumulation, withdrawal, or significant movement of subsurface magma or pressurization as would be expected if the system was building toward a resumption of activity.

    It is too soon to tell if this change represents a temporary lull or the end of the LERZ eruption and/or summit collapse activity. In 1955, similar pauses of 5 and 16 days occurred during an 88-day-long LERZ eruption. During the Mauna Ulu eruption (1969-1974), a 3.5 month pause occurred in late 1971.
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  21. #111
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  22. #112
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    Civil Defense seems to be lowering their response level
    The Hawai‘i County Civil Defense reports that Hawaiian Volcano Observatory states that activity on the lower east rift zone of Kīlauea Volcano has diminished and remained quiet for over a week. The only surface activity is a small, crusted lava pond inside the Fissure 8 cone, and a few areas along the coast where lava is entering the ocean. Sulfur dioxide emission rates are also drastically reduced. While eruptive activity is minimal at this time, hazards remain.

    It is common for eruptions to go through periods of diminished output, or to pause completely, only to reactivate days, weeks, or even months later. Re-activation could occur at any time, with little to no warning. Residents should remain informed and heed Hawai‘i County Civil Defense messages and warnings. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory will continue to release daily status updates, found here.

    ...

    Civil Defense continues to monitor the situation. However, this will is there final daily Kīlauea Eruption Update unless activity significantly changes.
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  23. #113
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    Short article about the National Park's recovery

    Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park reports that although it’s been more than two weeks since the summit area of Kīlauea was rocked by dangerous earthquakes and collapse-explosion events, the damage inflicted upon roads, trails and infrastructure in the park will take time to evaluate and repair.

    The park is taking advantage of the lull in hazardous conditions to assemble a specialized team that will conduct thorough damage assessments and become the foundation of the park’s recovery plan.

    “The science informs the decisions we make,” said Park Superintendent Cindy Orlando. “We have entered the phase of managing the park as if the hazards could return at any time, while maintaining hope that the lull in activity lasts so we can continue the momentum towards eventual reopening,” she said. “We are actively considering and making short-term repairs to safely reopen at least part of the park.”
    Includes a couple of photos of damage.
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  24. #114
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    Bump! Because it's been about a month, during which nothing much has happened. Today's report:
    On Kīlauea Volcano's lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), no incandescence was visible overnight in the collapse pit within the fissure 8 cone. Minor fuming is visible during the day. Seismicity and ground deformation remain low at the summit of Kīlauea. Small aftershocks from the magnitude-6.9 earthquake in early May are still being generated on faults located on Kīlauea's South Flank.


    No collapses within Puʻu ʻŌʻō crater have been observed since September 14. Rates of tilting throughout the East Rift Zone are much lower than those observed during the period of major eruptive activity. There has been no change in seismicity during the past week.


    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates at the summit, Puʻu ʻŌʻō, and LERZ are drastically reduced; the combined rate is less than 1,000 tonnes/day, which is lower than at any time since late 2007. SO2 emission rates from LERZ vents were below the detection threshold of the measurement technique when last measured on September 11. Minor amounts of H2S are being emitted at the summit and at Puʻu ʻŌʻō.


    The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) continues to closely monitor Kīlauea's seismicity, deformation, and gas emissions for any sign of reactivation, and maintains visual surveillance of the summit and LERZ. HVO will continue to issue daily updates and additional messages as needed.
    is virtually identical to the past week.

    There are some very good drone videos up in the Multimedia section. I like this one. I keep having to remind myself that that is the middle of a residential subdivision.

    ETA: Oops, that wasn't the video I meant to link. This one is better.
    Last edited by Trebuchet; 2018-Sep-24 at 02:29 PM.
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  25. #115
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    Quote Originally Posted by Trebuchet View Post
    Bump! Because it's been about a month, during which nothing much has happened.
    One thing happened: the park reopened this past Saturday.
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  26. #116
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    I had said to myself when they announced the eruption was likely to go on for months that it would end within a week or two. I had sort of anticipated it anyway, as the areal coverage of the lava seemed to reach similar extents to the others in that area (i.e., the 1840, 1955, and 1960 eruptions). I figured these eruptions likely extract a similar amount of lava, perhaps at varying rates. It could also be coincidence. Either way, I hope they were wrong with that original assessment and we don't get hundreds of park guests or area residents trapped.

    CJSF
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    If you were incorrect
    A fact is just a fantasy
    Unless it can be checked
    Make a test
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  27. #117
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    Kiluauea summit appears much changed.
    East rift zone has a nice new cone.
    Pix and vids here: https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/volcanoes...hronology.html

  28. #118
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    Quote Originally Posted by Squink View Post
    Kiluauea summit appears much changed.
    East rift zone has a nice new cone.
    Pix and vids here: https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/volcanoes...hronology.html
    Yes, that's the same site I linked above. I was visiting every day when things were more active.

    A lot of people have also lost their homes.
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  29. #119
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    Massive change.
    I doubt the homes will be back.
    Looks like the lava pool at summit is gone as well.
    Of course no one is going down there just now to place a camera.
    Even the drone vid shys away from the inner crater.

  30. #120
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    Both the summit crater and Pu'u O'o have drained down, with the summit crater being hundreds of feet deep. It may take a couple of years for the hotspot to recharge the system.
    Cum catapultae proscriptae erunt tum soli proscript catapultas habebunt.

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