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Thread: The End-Permian Extinction - caused by the Siberian Traps & ozone-killing gases

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    Exclamation The End-Permian Extinction - caused by the Siberian Traps & ozone-killing gases

    What really killed off everything at the end of the Permian -- gases from the Siberian Traps


    http://www.nature.com/articles/s41561-018-0215-4

    End-Permian extinction amplified by plume-induced release of recycled lithospheric volatiles

    Michael W. Broadley, Peter H. Barry, Chris J. Ballentine, Lawrence A. Taylor & Ray Burgess
    Nature Geoscience (27 August 2018)

    Magmatic volatile release to the atmosphere can lead to climatic changes and substantial environmental degradation including the production of acid rain, ocean acidification and ozone depletion, potentially resulting in the collapse of the biosphere. The largest recorded mass extinction in Earth’s history occurred at the end of the Permian, coinciding with the emplacement of the Siberian large igneous province, suggesting that large-scale magmatism is a key driver of global environmental change. However, the source and nature of volatiles in the Siberian large igneous province remain contentious. Here we present halogen compositions of sub-continental lithospheric mantle xenoliths emplaced before and after the eruption of the Siberian flood basalts. We show that the Siberian lithosphere is massively enriched in halogens from the infiltration of subducted seawater-derived volatiles and that a considerable amount (up to 70%) of lithospheric halogens are assimilated into the plume and released to the atmosphere during emplacement. Plume–lithosphere interaction is therefore a key process controlling the volatile content of large igneous provinces and thus the extent of environmental crises, leading to mass extinctions during their emplacement.
    There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjecture out of such a trifling investment of fact.
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    "Instantaneous" means "give or take 31,000 years" when you are talking geologic time. It appears that the whole Earth's environment was severely stressed by volcanism and ozone destruction by the time the end-Permian mass extinction came, and when things went off the deep end they went fairly quickly (not from our perspective, maybe, but fast enough). I don't think much of this is applicable to current times, but it is food for thought.


    https://phys.org/news/2018-09-end-pe...antaneous.html

    End-Permian extinction, which wiped out most of Earth's species, was instantaneous in geological time
    September 19, 2018, by Jennifer Chu, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    [from the actual paper's abstract] "Integrated high-precision U-Pb geochronology, biostratigraphy, and chemostratigraphy from a highly expanded section at Penglaitan, Guangxi, South China reveal a sudden end-Permian mass extinction that occurred at 251.939 ± 0.031 Ma, which is temporally coincident with the extinction recorded in Bed 25 of the Meishan section."
    There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjecture out of such a trifling investment of fact.
    — Mark Twain, Life on the Mississippi (1883)

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    More on the end-Permian extinction.

    https://phys.org/news/2018-12-bigges...bal-ocean.html

    Biggest mass extinction caused by global warming leaving ocean animals gasping for breath
    December 6, 2018, University of Washington

    The largest extinction in Earth's history marked the end of the Permian period, some 252 million years ago. Long before dinosaurs, our planet was populated with plants and animals that were mostly obliterated after a series of massive volcanic eruptions in Siberia. Fossils in ancient seafloor rocks display a thriving and diverse marine ecosystem, then a swath of corpses. Some 96 percent of marine species were wiped out during the "Great Dying," followed by millions of years when life had to multiply and diversify once more.

    What has been debated until now is exactly what made the oceans inhospitable to life—the high acidity of the water, metal and sulfide poisoning, a complete lack of oxygen, or simply higher temperatures.

    New research from the University of Washington and Stanford University combines models of ocean conditions and animal metabolism with published lab data and paleoceanographic records to show that the Permian mass extinction in the oceans was caused by global warming that left animals unable to breathe. As temperatures rose and the metabolism of marine animals sped up, the warmer waters could not hold enough oxygen for them to survive. The study is published in the Dec. 7 issue of Science.
    There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjecture out of such a trifling investment of fact.
    — Mark Twain, Life on the Mississippi (1883)

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    It is interesting to find the causes of these extinction events.

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    Quote Originally Posted by bknight View Post
    It is interesting to find the causes of these extinction events.
    I must say what disturbs me the most is that Earth had a volcanic eruption so bad, it nearly killed off all life. I have significant concerns about that. I will check my backyard for volcanos tonight.

    "The more you know, the less you want to."

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    Worth noting that the end-Permian extinction has been blamed on a lot of things, to include asteroid impact and "volcanogenic dark matter".


    https://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0311111

    Raining lead around 250mya: a smoking gun for an Australian impact origin of the Permian Extinction

    J. C. Standard, C. A. Angell (Submitted on 22 Nov 2003 (v1), last revised 8 Jan 2004 (this version, v2))

    Recent documentation of extreme atmospheric sulfur and methane contents at the time of the vast Permo-Triassic (P-T) extinction makes it possible to interpret an observation that has lain unnoticed in the geological literature for 40 years. This is the finding of microscopic metallic lead tear drops in the fluvial strata of the early Triassic sandstones that overlie Permian coal beds and other sedimentary deposits in the Sydney basin of Australia. Elemental lead is almost unknown in nature, so its occurrence in these graphite-loaded sandstones is a provocative finding. While climate change and vulcanism could explain the carbon and sulfur anomalies, the only way to account for metallic lead aerodynamic droplets is by massive impact and vaporization of lead mineral-containing formations. Since lead occurs geologically as the sulfide and since lead is an easily reduced element, its occurrence in conjunction with sulfur and carbon count anomalies suggests a bolide impact on carbon-loaded strata in a sulfide mineral-rich region. From these clues, and from stream cross-bedding data, we identify a probable site for the impact, in Bass Strait between Tasmania and Victoria. A gravitational anomaly, similar to that known at the site of the Cretacious-Tertiary (C-T) impact site, conforms with a central uplift. The sudden compression at an Australian impact site would provoke tension fissuring on the opposite side of a shell- structured planet, hence is consistent with the unprecedented flood basalts initiated in Siberia at the P-T boundary. Our interpretation requires that lead microspheres and graphite occur together elsewhere, possibly in Antarctic sandstones.

    =====

    https://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/9805317

    Anoxia during the Late Permian Binary Mass Extinction and Dark Matter

    Samar Abbas, Afsar Abbas, Shukadev Mohanty (Submitted on 26 May 1998)

    Recent evidence quite convincingly indicates that the Late Permian biotic crisis was in fact a binary extinction with a distinct end-Guadalupian extinction pulse preceding the major terminal end-Permian Tartarian event by 5 million years. In addition anoxia appears to be closely associated with each of these end-Paleozoic binary extinctions. Most leading models cannot explain both anoxia and the binary characteristic of this crisis. In this paper we show that the recently proposed volcanogenic dark matter scenario succeeds in doing this.
    There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjecture out of such a trifling investment of fact.
    — Mark Twain, Life on the Mississippi (1883)

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    How in heaven's name is a volcano going to trap dark matter?
    Volcanogenic Dark Matter and Mass Extinctions (pdf)
    If it causes enough heating to warm the core and mantle it seems to me that it's not very dark.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Squink View Post
    How in heaven's name is a volcano going to trap dark matter?
    Volcanogenic Dark Matter and Mass Extinctions (pdf)
    If it causes enough heating to warm the core and mantle it seems to me that it's not very dark.
    I think they also have the dark matter/iron elastic scattering cross section as about 1,000,000 that of neutrinos (1 GeV energy nominal scale). There is no reference for the source of this number that I picked up on skimming the paper.
    Then there is the assumed mass of what they seem to be saying is a SUSY particle - 55MeV is ruled out pretty decisively by LHC/Tevatron results. The only particle on their list that is viable would be a Majorana neutrino and 55MeV is not a good fit for the two possibilities of that, I believe (although I am not up to date on this)
    Their estimates of the DM heat flux are also hard to believe. They have the total heat flux from the core going up by a factor of 10,000 times its measured value during the passage through a clump of DM. And DM doesn't clump on small scales, that is practically defining characteristic.

    So we have DM we should see in neutrino detectors dumping a vast amount of energy into the Earth over significant periods of time. I can't help but feel that there are so many questionable assumptions in this paper that the conclusions are hard to accept.

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    I'm not sure we should be stating that anything 'caused' the Permian extinction event. I think the science is not yet complete. The lead paper in this thread is simply further evidence that large igneous provinces have (had) a significant effect on climate.

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    Quote Originally Posted by geonuc View Post
    I'm not sure we should be stating that anything 'caused' the Permian extinction event. I think the science is not yet complete. The lead paper in this thread is simply further evidence that large igneous provinces have (had) a significant effect on climate.
    Yes, this is not a new theory, just supporting evidence.

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    https://www.earth-syst-dynam.net/8/1/2017/ presents the following argument on stratification as the cause of the Great Dying.

    "Ocean basin stratifications may be induced by increasing
    precipitation with increased surface water runoff (van Helmond
    et al., 2015) or by increased brine production
    (Friedrich et al., 2008). Such an ocean stratification event is
    characterized by regional to global ocean anoxia, black sediments
    with elevated organic C and a hot greenhouse climate,
    as we can see from the whole Phanerozoic past (Meyers,
    2014), and was often accompanied by mass extinctions.

    Even the largest mass extinction of ocean biota within the
    Phanerozoic epoch, during the Permian–Triassic transition,
    was induced by high temperatures as a consequence of elevated
    CO2 levels, which induced the change from a wellmixed
    oxic to a stratified euxinic–anoxic ocean (Kaiho et al.,
    2016)."

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    Little update on the paleontology of the die-off.


    https://www.sciencenews.org/article/...***-extinction

    More plants survived the world’s greatest mass extinction than thought
    Fossils in a Jordanian desert reveal plant lineages that didn’t perish in the Great Dying
    Laurel Hamers 2:12pm, December 20, 2018

    A collection of roughly 255-million-year-old fossils suggests that three major plant groups existed earlier than previously thought, and made it through a mass extinction that wiped out more than 90 percent of Earth’s marine species and roughly 70 percent of land vertebrates.
    There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjecture out of such a trifling investment of fact.
    — Mark Twain, Life on the Mississippi (1883)

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    Quote Originally Posted by geonuc View Post
    I'm not sure we should be stating that anything 'caused' the Permian extinction event. I think the science is not yet complete. The lead paper in this thread is simply further evidence that large igneous provinces have (had) a significant effect on climate.
    Just pointing out that some weird theories have cropped up. The offshore Australian crater petered out long ago, the dark matter stuff was just... weird.
    There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjecture out of such a trifling investment of fact.
    — Mark Twain, Life on the Mississippi (1883)

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