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Thread: Six-star M-dwarf multiple system only 21 lightyears away

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    Question Six-star M-dwarf multiple system only 21 lightyears away

    Is Wolf 630 + Wolf 629 a sextuplet star only 21 light years away, made up only of low-mass red dwarfs?

    This is a difficult question, as some astronomy papers say yes and some say no, going back into the 1970s-1980s. Here's what I found. Not linking to articles now, these can be found on the SAO/NASA ADS site.


    CAVEAT: All of these stars have multiple confusing names, and some papers misidentify the stars badly (e.g., Wolf 629 = Wolf 630).

    * Wolf 630 = Gliese (GL, GJ) 644 = HD 152751 = HIP 82817 = V1054 Oph. There is an A component (flare star) and a spectroscopic binary not yet separated (Ba & Bb). All are M3V to M4V.

    * van Biesbroeck 8 = Wolf 630 C, a distant sub-size M-dwarf flare star. Once thought a brown dwarf orbited it, false positive. Distant but comoving with AB. M7V.

    * Wolf 629 = Gliese (GL, GJ) 643 = HIP 82809, once thought single but apparently now a spectroscopic binary (at least) per SIMBAD, listing both GJ 643 A & B. M3.5V-M4V.

    ================

    Studies of multiple stellar systems – IV. The triple-lined spectroscopic system Gliese 644
    Tsevi Maze et al. (2001)

    DATA: "In this section we discuss two additional stars associated with the Gliese 644 triple system. One of them is Gliese 643 (=Wolf 629, α = 16:55:25.26, δ = −8:19:21.3 [J2000], V = 11.74 mag), at a projected separation of about 70′′ from Gliese 644. The other companion, at a separation of 220′′, is the faint star vB 8 (=Gliese 644C, α = 16:55:35.74, δ = −08:23:36.0 [J2000], V = 16.80 mag). The common proper motion of Gliese 644 and 643 (Wolf 1919) and their similar parallax (e.g., ESA 1997) strongly indicate that they are indeed physically connected. Van Biesbroeck (1961) found that vB 8 also shares with Gliese 644 the same proper motion, attesting to its physical association with the system... The Gliese 644/643/vB 8 system is the nearest known quintuple stellar system."

    ================

    Accurate masses and radii of normal stars: Modern results and applications
    G. Torres, J. Andersen, A. Gimenez (2009, published 2010)

    DATA: GJ 644 A + Bab / HD 152751 [[Wolf 630]] is 6.46 pc away (SIMBAD says 6.5, apparently abbreviating, this is not what original paper says; I check original sources whenever possible)

    ================

    SIMBAD (Wolf 629)
    Wolf 629 -- Spectroscopic binary (so Wolf 629 is a double star, at least)

    distance = 6.4969 pc (cannot get original paper)
    2018yCat.1345....0G - CDS/ADC Collection of Electronic Catalogues, 1345, 0 (2018)

    ================

    SIMBAD (Wolf 630)
    HD 152751 -- Spectroscopic binary (Wolf 630 is a quadruple star, with the innermost system a spectroscopic binary)

    ================

    The difference between 6.4969 pc and 6.46 pc is 0.0369 pc, = 7611.17 AU. Seems pretty close to me, plus co-traveling.

    Now, Wikipedia (I checked the sources/footnotes) claims V1054 Ophiuchi + Gliese 643 is a quintuple system, but if Wolf 629 is a spectroscopic multiple, then it is a six-star (sextuplet) system. Someone worked VERY hard on this Wikipedia page, a work of love, but it has errors.


    PROBLEM: Why is this sextuplet system not better known? What in the above data is incorrect, making this NOT a sextuplet system?

    Asking mostly as an interested astronomy hobbyist, but it is confusing. Thank you, anyone who can shed light on this.
    Last edited by Swift; 2018-Nov-08 at 05:44 PM. Reason: removed ?
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    Question

    Attachment shows earliest mention I can find that this is a six-star system (Walker 1980).
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    There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjecture out of such a trifling investment of fact.
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    Question

    Mazeh (2001) did not find Wolf 643 to be a binary but could not disprove it. SIMBAD still calls it a binary, though.
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    There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjecture out of such a trifling investment of fact.
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    The reason I ask about this system is because I've seen mention online that Wolf 630 and Wolf 629 are separate and not gravitationally connected.

    Amateur site: http://andys.wikia.com/wiki/BD-08°4352_System
    There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjecture out of such a trifling investment of fact.
    — Mark Twain, Life on the Mississippi (1883)

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    I think I found what happened, perhaps. In a 2010 paper, in "UBV(RI)CJHK observations of Hipparcos-selected nearby stars" by KOEN C., KILKENNY D., VAN WYK F. and MARANG F., the following parallaxes were given:

    Wolf 629 measured at 6.72 +/- 0.18 pc and Wolf 630 measured at 6.20 +/- 0.22 pc. (got this off SIMBAD)

    Have these parallaxes been updated by GAIA or other data to make Wolf 629 and Wolf 630 part of the same star system?

    And is Wolf 629 a binary star, per current literature?
    There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjecture out of such a trifling investment of fact.
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    Exclamation

    Feel a bit foolish, just dug further into the CDS files, see attached. Thank you for your patience.

    There really is a sextuplet star system just 21.2 light years away, made up solely of low-mass red dwarfs. The orbital elements must be stunning. The parallax discrepancies must have been resolved, then. Castor is not the closest sextuplet system!

    Will this nearby system be searched for planets? One can only hope. That would be wild.

    LATE ADD: Still think it odd that the only attempt to verify double-star status of Wolf 629 came up empty, but the label of spectroscopic binary still sticks. Why?
    Attached Images Attached Images
    Last edited by Roger E. Moore; 2018-Oct-07 at 03:59 AM. Reason: late adds
    There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjecture out of such a trifling investment of fact.
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    Hmmm, most recent papers on this star system treat Wolf 629 / GJ 643 as a single star, as did Mazeh (2001), not as a spectroscopic binary, as does SIMBAD now.

    Guess we're going back to quintuple status. Will keep looking at papers.
    There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjecture out of such a trifling investment of fact.
    — Mark Twain, Life on the Mississippi (1883)

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    Oooooooo, I will use CDS more often for everything.

    http://cdsportal.u-strasbg.fr/?target=GJ%20643

    Link to GJ 643, one of the red dwarfs in this system. Wall to wall detail, bibliography, omg everything. I love CDS.
    There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjecture out of such a trifling investment of fact.
    — Mark Twain, Life on the Mississippi (1883)

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    By request of the OP, moved from Q&A to Astronomy.
    At night the stars put on a show for free (Carole King)

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    Quote Originally Posted by Swift View Post
    By request of the OP, moved from Q&A to Astronomy.
    Thank you!
    There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjecture out of such a trifling investment of fact.
    — Mark Twain, Life on the Mississippi (1883)

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    Some side notes about this FIVE-star system, which still has a remote chance of being a sextuplet. For a brief period, it was thought this was a SEVEN-star system, and an example of this is the following paper.


    http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/c...;filetype=.pdf

    LOW-ENERGY X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE WOLF 630 SYSTEM

    Hugh M. Johnson (Lockheed Missiles and Space Company) Received 1986 June 19; accepted 1986 October 22

    The septuplet of M dwarfs is resolved into three components. Wolf 630ABab, Wolf 629ab, and VB 8AB, with the EXOSAT channel multiplier array (CMA). W630 and VB 8 have previously been observed with the Einstein high resolution imager (HRI) and W630 only with the Einstein imaging proportional counter (IPC) and solid state spectrometer (SSS). The ratio of CMA to HRI count rates for VB 8 can be produced with an isothermal plasma model temperature T = (6.4 +1.6/-0.9)E5 K, which is exceptionally low in the known range ofcoronal temperatures. The count rate during 18,112 s of effective exposure with EXOSAT shows that VB 8 flared once in 0.05-2 keV flux. T > 6.4E5 K in a flaring state, coupled with T < 6.4E5 K in a quiescent state during the HRI observation, may also represent the data for VB 8. The results are of special interest for objects near the limit of the hydrogen-burning main sequence.
    There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjecture out of such a trifling investment of fact.
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    Two of the red dwarfs in GJ 644/643 are being checked for exoplanets by two different long-term programs at the same time. The innermost members of the 5-star system, GJ 644 A/Ba/Bb, are so close to each other that there is little likelihood of exoplanets around them. GJ 643 and vB 8 (GJ 644 C) are well apart from the rest of the group. Cross your fingers. (GJ 643 was once suspected of being a spectroscopic double, and in the 1980s vB 8 (van Biesbroeck 8) was thought to be orbited by a brown dwarf.


    https://arxiv.org/abs/1501.05012
    A 3D Search for Companions to 12 Nearby M-Dwarfs
    Davison, Cassy L, et al. (2015)

    https://arxiv.org/abs/1711.06576
    The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: High-resolution optical and near-infrared spectroscopy of 324 survey stars
    A. Reiners, et al. (2018)
    There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjecture out of such a trifling investment of fact.
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    MY DAILY WHINE: One of the difficulties in researching this 5- or 6- star system appears when you realize that astronomers are not consistent when naming the various components of the system. See the following excerpts from two papers published about a year apart from the same astronomers. Note the confusion when discussing Wolf 630 (a.k.a. Gliese 644: a triple star) and Wolf 629 (a.k.a. Gliese 643: single, but suspected spectroscopic double). Wolf 630A, Wolf 630Ba, Wolf 630 Bb, Wolf 630 C (a.k.a. van Biesbroeck 8 / vB 8, another red dwarf), and Wolf 629 (single or double) make up the five- (or six-)star system. V1054 Oph is actually just Wolf 630 (triple star system), excluding the other two stars.

    =====

    1st QUOTE: V1054 Oph is a triple-lined spectroscopic system known as Gliese 644 (= Wolf 630 + Wolf629ABab) at a distance of 6.5 pc. V1054 Oph is classified as a metal-rich star and a member of the old disk population of the Galaxy (Veeder 1974; Fleming et al. 1995). The flare stars whose flare parameters are compared in this study are quite young stars, except for V1054 Oph. The masses were derived for each component of Wolf 629ABab by Mazeh et al. (2001), and were shown to be 0.41 M☉ for Wolf 629A, 0.336 M☉ for Wolf 629Ba, and 0.304 M☉ for Wolf 629Bb. In addition, Mazeh et al. (2001) demonstrated that the age of the system is about 5 Gyr.

    SATURATION LEVELS FOR WHITE-LIGHT FLARES OF FLARE STARS: VARIATION OF MINIMUM FLARE DURATION FOR SATURATION
    H. A. Dal and S. Evren
    Published 2010 December 29 • © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
    The Astronomical Journal, Volume 141, Number 2

    ===

    2nd QUOTE: The fourth star in this study is V1054 Oph, whose flare activity was discovered by Eggen (1965). V1054 Oph (= Wolf 630ABab, Gliese 644ABab) is a member of the Wolf star group (Joy 1947; Joy & Abt 1974). Wolf 630ABab, Wolf 629AB (= Gliese 643AB), and VB8 (= Gliese 644C) are the members of the main triplet system, whose scheme is demonstrated in Figure 1 given in the paper of Pettersen et al. (1984). Wolf 630 and Wolf 629 are a visual binary and they are separated by 72'' from each other. Wolf 630AB is a close visual binary in itself. Wolf 629AB is a spectroscopic binary. The B component of Wolf 629AB seems to be a spectroscopic binary. VB8 is 220'' from the other components. There is an angular distance of about 0farcs218 between the A and B components of Wolf 630 (Joy 1947; Joy & Abt 1974). The masses were derived for each component of Wolf 630ABab by Mazeh et al. (2001). The author showed that the masses are 0.41 M☉ for Wolf 629A, 0.336 M☉ for Wolf 630Ba, and 0.304 M☉ for Wolf 630Bb. In addition, Mazeh et al. (2001) demonstrated that the age of the system is about 5 Gyr.

    A NEW METHOD FOR CLASSIFYING FLARES OF UV Ceti TYPE STARS: DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SLOW AND FAST FLARES
    H. A. Dal and S. Evren
    Published 2010 July 1 • © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
    The Astronomical Journal, Volume 140, Number 2

    ==========================

    I compiled a list of stellar names in an Excel file, applied to this star system only. It's a bigger mess than trying to figure out the plot of the unreleased videogame "Death Stranding".
    Last edited by Roger E. Moore; 2019-Jan-23 at 07:22 PM.
    There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjecture out of such a trifling investment of fact.
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    Have you considered contacting the authors for clarification?

    It seems to me that their understanding of the star system (and thus their naming convention) might have evolved significantly in the year and a half between the publication of those two papers, and might be even more different now.
    Selden

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    Quote Originally Posted by selden View Post
    Have you considered contacting the authors for clarification?

    It seems to me that their understanding of the star system (and thus their naming convention) might have evolved significantly in the year and a half between the publication of those two papers, and might be even more different now.
    Nah, the problem actually runs through quite a number of papers on this system, not just these two. The issue is carelessness and bad proofing. It's stupidity. I think it's a waste of time contacting anyone at this state, because the problem has not ended. It continues to this date with discrepancies and inconsistencies.

    If I was an astronomer, or even a mediocre SF writer, and I wanted to study this system by reading everything done about it, I would have to create an error chart showing the names each paper gave to each star in order to correctly recognize what was being said about which star. That should not have to happen.
    There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjecture out of such a trifling investment of fact.
    — Mark Twain, Life on the Mississippi (1883)

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    "A long-standing frustration regarding M dwarfs has been the usage of names from a wide variety of catalogs," wrote astronomers Alfred H. Joy & Helmut A. Abt in their 1974 paper, "Spectral Types of M Dwarf Stars."

    I am pleased to see that my frustration in this regard was regarded as valid 45 years ago.

    Joy & Abt continued, spelling out the depth of the problem in their research for that 1974 paper: "In table 1 we have compiled most of the designations used; further ones are given by Woolley et al (1970). The designations include numbers from Cincinnati (Publications of the Cincinnati Observatory, No. 18 and 20), Furuhjelm [Frjm] (1917), Gliese [GLS] (1969), Groombridge [Grmb], (Dyson and Thackeray 1905), Luyten [LFT] (1955) and other catalogs, McCormick [McC] (Vyssotsky 1943, 1956; Vyssotsky et al. 1946; Vyssotsky and Mateer 1952), Ross (1925-1939), Weisse-Bessel [WB] (Weisse 1846, 1863), Wolf (1914-1929), Yale (Jenkins 1952, 1963), and the standard Aitken [ADS], Henry Draper, Lalande, variable star, and constellation names." Indeed, they typed out equivalent names from various catalogs for every star in their paper, 426 M-dwarfs in all.

    LINK: http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/1974ApJS...28....1J (to synopsis; for PDF, click on PDF link)

    How bad is this problem, really? Let us look at the nomenclature gifted to only one of the five (or six, or seven, etc.) stars in the GJ 644-643 system, as it is known in the SIMBAD catalog online. For fun, I've gone through a few of the bibliographic entries detailing Wolf 629 (a.k.a. GJ 643, from the 1991 Gliese & Jahreiί catalog of nearest stars; Wolf 629 is so named from Wolf's 1919 catalog). As Wolf 629 is the preferred name in SIMBAD, I'll go with that.

    LINK: http://simbad.u-strasbg.fr/simbad/si...=Wolf%20%20629

    In Joy & Abt's 1974 paper, we have the following equivalent names for Wolf 629.
    * BD-8°4352C, GLS 643, LFT 1311, Yale 3844.

    We see there is a little problem. Now, Wolf 629 has been called a spectroscopic binary, first by Joy in a 1947 paper, "Radial Velocities and Spectral Types of 181 Dwarf Stars". Let's see what he called Wolf 629.
    * GC 22805C

    I don't even know what stellar catalog he was using. “GC 22805C” is not listed among the alternate names for Wolf 629 in SIMBAD, so we have an entirely new (rather, very old) designation for it. I tracked down the star by using its RA/Dec coordinates for 1900. Side note: GC 22805AB was Wolf 630, a companion system to Wolf 629, but we'll skip that for now and stick to Wolf 629.

    The designation of Wolf 629 as a spectroscopic binary was refuted by Tsevi Mazeh, David W. Latham, Elad Goldberg, et al., in their 2001 paper, "Studies of multiple stellar systems - IV. The triple-lined spectroscopic system Gliese 644". What did they call Wolf 629, which they claimed was most likely a single star?
    * Gliese 643

    This is a slightly different way of saying GJ 643. Let's go down the list of papers about Wolf 629 from SIMBAD and pick out a few, just to see what they call Wolf 629.

    2012 "Metallicity and temperature indicators in M dwarf K-band spectra: testing new and updated calibrations with observations of 133 solar neighborhood M dwarfs." ROJAS-AYALA B., COVEY K.R., MUIRHEAD P.S., et al.
    * Gl 643, yet another way of writing GJ 643, using a lower-case L.

    2011 "Infrared spectroscopic observations of the secondary stars of short-period sub-gap cataclysmic variables." HAMILTON R.T., HARRISON T.E., TAPPERT C., et al.
    * LHS 427, which I identified only by checking the SIMBAD page on Wolf 629 alternate names.

    2017 "The solar neighborhood. XLI. A study of the wide main sequence for M dwarfs-long-term photometric variability." CLEMENTS T.D., HENRY T.J., HOSEY A.D., et al.
    * GJ 643 – good, back to basics.

    2012 "The statistical analyses of flares detected in B band photometry of UV Ceti type stars." DAL H.A. and EVREN S.
    * Wolf 629AB (= Gliese 643AB), meaning the authors have adopted Joy 1947's statement that Wolf 629 is a spectroscopic binary (A and B components). SIMBAD, in fact, also says Wolf 629 is a spectroscopic binary, ignoring Mazeh et al. 2001.

    2015 "A 3D search for companions to 12 nearby M dwarfs." DAVISON C.L., WHITE R.J., HENRY T.J., et al.
    * GJ 643

    2009 "A new population of cool stars and brown dwarfs in the Lupus clouds." COMERON F., SPEZZI L. and LOPEZ MARTI B.
    * Wolf 629

    2013 "The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. XXXI. The M-dwarf sample." BONFILS X., DELFOSSE X., UDRY S., et al.
    * Gl643, which makes the lower-case L look like the numeral 1 ("G 1643") in certain type fonts.

    2018 "On the dynamical history of the interstellar object ’Oumuamua." DYBCZYNSKI P.A. and KROLIKOWSKA M.
    * GJ 643 and HIP 82809C (Hipparcos catalog)

    2016 "Radial velocities of K-M dwarfs and local stellar kinematics." SPERAUSKAS J., BARTASIUTE S., BOYLE R.P., et al.
    * MCC782D = Wolf 629, from "the lists of stars selected spectroscopically by A. N. Vyssotsky and his colleagues in 1943–1958 at the McCormick Observatory (hereinafter MCC)" (from the paper). I've seen McCormick designations also written "McC". Note the "D", which means the A, B, and C components are in what we'd call Wolf 630 (see below).

    1983 "Astrometry of the Low-Luminosity Stars VB8 and VB10." Harrington & Kallarakal.
    * W629 and Kuiper 75, the latter for another old catalog not given among the alternate designations for Wolf 629 in SIMBAD. Note that "Wolf" is now just "W".

    ============================

    The overuse of alternate names for stars is so extreme that you must absolutely rely on SIMBAD to decode the designations, BUT you cannot rely on SIMBAD as even recent papers will use archaic or obscure stellar catalogs to derive the sole name for the star you are looking for. Cross-referencing is critical. Three of the above alternate names for Wolf 629 do not appear in SIMBAD. Tracking the star by RA/Dec for a given year might be your only hope.

    And… Wolf 629 is not the worst case in the GJ 644-643 system. The worst is Wolf 630 itself, a triple star with so many designations as to drive an astronomer to drink. Some paper even changed the alphabetical letters used to distinguish between the triple stars, so what was once GJ 644 A, GJ 644 Ba, and GJ 644 Bb are also listed as GJ 644 A, GJ 644 B, and GJ 644 D. Feel free to substitute for “GJ 644” such names as V1054 Oph, Wolf 630, BD -8°4352, GC 22805, and HD 152751 in commonly seen papers on this system. GJ 644 C is yet another companion star better known as Van Biesbroeck 8, or VB 8, vB 8, VB8, etc.

    Good luck!
    Last edited by Roger E. Moore; 2019-Feb-14 at 08:45 PM.
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    CORRECTION: I finally discovered that "GC" means General Catalog, a 1937 stellar collection that is listed in SIMBAD as "General catalogue of 33342 stars for the epoch 1950, Dudley Observatory Albany, N.Y. " from "Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publ. No 468, vol. 1-5, 0-None (1937)". However, the GC designation is not on the Wolf 629 page, despite SIMBAD's claims to have completely incorporated the GC catalog into its pages. Eh.
    There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjecture out of such a trifling investment of fact.
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    A few other adds...

    2011 Saturation levels for white-light flares of flare stars: variation of minimum flare duration for saturation. DAL H.A. and EVREN S.
    * ERROR: Paper identifies V1054 Oph as "a triple-lined spectroscopic system known as Gliese 644 (= Wolf 630 + Wolf629ABab)", thus confusing the triple Wolf 630 with the single Wolf 629. Beware of similar Wolf or GJ misidentifications for this star group.

    2014 The closest M-dwarf quadruple system to the Sun. DAVISON C.L., WHITE R.J., JAO W.-C., et al.
    * ERROR: The hierarchy of GJ 644 is set up as ABC-D-GJ 643, which is wrong. GJ 644 C is the next star outward from GJ 644 ABab, where "D" is. Note that another paper wrote the inner triple system as ABD.

    2017 CARMENES input catalogue of M dwarfs. II. High-resolution imaging with FastCam. CORTES-CONTRERAS M., BEJAR V.J.S., CABALLERO J.A., et al.
    * Karmn (CARMENES input catalogue of M dwarfs) numbers are used in the tables. Karmn J16554-083N = GJ 643, J16554-083S = GJ 644 ABab, and J16555-083 = vB 8. Also, Kuiper catalog KUI75 is added for GJ 644 ABab. Also, WDS (Washington Double Star) catalog designation LDS573 is applied to GJ 644 and vB 8 in Table A6.
    There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjecture out of such a trifling investment of fact.
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    Another interesting sort of error has cropped up in my reading. The stars in GJ 644-643 are, in Gliese numbers, GJ 644 ABab (the core three stars), GJ 644 C (Van Biesbroeck 8, the M7 flare star), and GJ 643. The latter, GJ 643, was thought to be a spectroscopic binary but now does not appear to be so, despite SIMBAD listing it as such.

    So there is no such thing ad GJ 643 C. And yet...

    ===

    2016 Galactic cosmic rays on extrasolar Earth-like planets. II. Atmospheric implications. GRIESMEIER J.-M., TABATABA-VAKILI F., STADELMANN A., et al.
    ERROR: Paper refers to a "chromospherically active star (such as AD Leo or GJ 643C)".

    2016 Telling twins apart: exo-Earths and Venuses with transit spectroscopy. BARSTOW J.K., AIGRAIN S., IRWIN P.G.J., et al.
    ERROR: "...the UV flux profile of an active AD Leo-type star would result the O3 column abundance being reduced by around 50%, but for a star like GJ 643C it could be increased by the same amount."

    ===

    So we have this reference a flare star which has to be to Van Biesbroeck 8 (GJ 644 C), I think. Whatever. If you happen to be researching this star system for any reason, be aware of this.
    There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjecture out of such a trifling investment of fact.
    — Mark Twain, Life on the Mississippi (1883)

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    Just discovered weird electronic formatting error in another paper that might mess up your reading on this star system.

    https://academic.oup.com/pasj/article/63/2/427/1566211
    2011 Rotation modulations and distributions of the flare occurrence rates on the surface of five UV Ceti type stars. DAL H.A. and EVREN S.

    Go to the "Introduction" paragraph beginning, "The fourth star in this study is V1054 Oph, whose flare activity was discovered by Eggen (1965)." See where it switches to discussing the star in the previous paragraph, mixed with some formatting error, then goes onward with the discussion of V1054 Oph.
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    Another case of too-many-M-dwarf-names syndrome.

    1985 G. P. KUIPER’S SPECTRAL CLASSIFICATIONS OF PROPER-MOTION STARS, by William P. Bidelman
    The GJ 644-643 system is found under Luyten catalog number LTT 6749 and LTT 6750, also identified (in following columns) as HD 152751 AB-C and as V1054 Oph. The PDF is not searchable.

    ...

    And...

    1919 "Katalog von 1053 staerker bewegten Fixsternen", by Max Wolf, per the SAO-NASA ADS home page search engine.
    In his catalog, the stars are known as 629 and 630, hence their Wolf numbers. Beside 629 is the note, "Begleiter von (Companion of) 630", the first known mention that the two stars travel together.

    1926 The absolute magnitudes and parallaxes of 410 stars of type M. ADAMS W.S., JOY A.H. and HUMASON M.L.
    As best as I can tell from the 1925 RA & Dec, GJ 644-643 is here called Cin. 2251, as per "'Porter’s “Catalogue of Proper Motion Stars,' Publications of the Cincinnati Observatory, No. 18", which came out in 1918. However, SIMBAD gives the Ci (Cincinnati) number as "20 1013". There is no explanation for the disagreement. Very puzzled.

    .


    NEW NAMES:
    1928, Second Catalogue of Radial Velocities, Voϋte, J.
    Annals of the Bosscha Observatory Lembang (Java) Indonesia, vol. 3, pp.A1-A168 (00/1928)

    In this catalog, apparently published in Indonesia, Voϋte number 2720 is our GJ 644-643 system, but it is also known as Ci 18.2251, meaning (I assume) the 18th Cincinnati catalog, number 2251 (explaining the quirk above). However, was the star system listed in Cincinnati #20 as 1013? Beats me.

    .

    Okay, this clears up a few things. I was reading this:

    1955, Magnitudes and colors for 833 Northern and Southern stars. EGGEN O.J.

    ...and discovered this star system by comparing RA & DEC. It was now called HD 152751 for the Henry Draper catalog of early in the last century, but it was also called CC 1013. I read on and found that "Cincinnati Publications Vol. 20 (CC) or Vol. 18 (Cin) is used when available." (Awkward grammar, but hey.) So, this star system has two different names in Cincinnati catalogs, depending on whether you use the 1918 or 1920 version. How fun! Let's give this star even more names! All right, I'll calm down.

    .

    Another batch.

    1956, Dwarf M stars found spectrophotometrically, Fourth List. VYSSOTSKY A.N.
    In a horrible proofing error, the RA & DEC are listed as "1855" on all nine pages of Table 1. Wolf 630/GJ 644 is here known as (Vyssotsky/McCormick #) 782, a.k.a. -8 4352, also G.C. 22805. Article refers to Wolf 629, but by that name only; does not call GJ 644 "Wolf 630".

    1956, Photoelectric observations of red dwarf stars. MUMFORD G.S.
    McC 782 used for GJ 644.

    1956, The nearest visual binaries. EGGEN O.J.
    Wolf 629 (GJ 643) is YALE 3844. It is also, for the first time, called the "C" component of "—8°4352" (YALE 3845, or Wolf 630/GJ 644), without being called "—8°4352 C".

    1956, "Red and infrared magnitudes for 282 stars with known trigonometric parallaxes." Kron, G. E.; Gascoigne, S. C. B.; White, H. S.
    Listed by Yale number, as above, but for the first time GJ 643 is referred to as part of [BD] —8°4352, being the C component (i.e., —8°4352 C). GJ 644 AB is [BD] —8°4352 AB.


    .
    Last edited by Roger E. Moore; 2019-Feb-22 at 09:05 PM. Reason: YET EVEN MORE new material
    There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjecture out of such a trifling investment of fact.
    — Mark Twain, Life on the Mississippi (1883)

  22. #22
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    Actually, the more I read, the history of human observation and discovery of this star system is getting pretty interesting. Will write up something once I get enough notes.
    There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjecture out of such a trifling investment of fact.
    — Mark Twain, Life on the Mississippi (1883)

  23. #23
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    Smile

    Forgive me for a moment of thrills. With all my notes on this system, I registered with the CDS/SIMBAD and posted annotations about the stars therein... and they changed SIMBAD as a result! Wolf 629 was once listed as a spectroscopic binary, but the evidence since then says it is not binary. I wrote about that and listed references, and they removed the "spectroscopic binary" tag from Wolf 629. Pic shows the change.

    OMG[osh], I did something good! I hope.

    My annotations on Wolf 629 (ignoring notes I made on other stars): http://cdsannotations.u-strasbg.fr/a...Object/2596252

    Attached Images Attached Images
    There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjecture out of such a trifling investment of fact.
    — Mark Twain, Life on the Mississippi (1883)

  24. #24
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    Congratulations!
    Selden

  25. #25
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    Thank you. Putting GJ 644-643 aside for a bit, picking up another star. Not a professional astronomer, but have 17 years as a magazine and games editor, plus OCD (medicated to a happy level).

    It's nice to be useful.
    There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjecture out of such a trifling investment of fact.
    — Mark Twain, Life on the Mississippi (1883)

  26. #26
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    New annotations have been posted to SIMBAD regarding this star system.

    http://cdsannotations.u-strasbg.fr/a...Object/2596342

    http://cdsannotations.u-strasbg.fr/a...Object/2596252
    There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjecture out of such a trifling investment of fact.
    — Mark Twain, Life on the Mississippi (1883)

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