William

2014-Oct-08, 03:50 PM

Large Scale Anomalies/Paradoxes

There are piles of observational anomalies/paradoxes that are appearing due to multi spectrum and large scale survey observations. This thread is a summary of a few of the key large scale anomalies, explaining why the observation/analysis is a paradox/anomaly and providing a little background into the subject.

Large Scale Quasar Clusters

20 years ago there were claims that there were anomalous unexplained clusters of quasars. Subsequent to the claim of quasar clusters, there were multiple papers published that asserted that quasars are evenly distributed in the universe and there is no quasar clustering. There is now unequivocal observational evidence that there are clusters of quasars,

There are multiple paradoxes associated with clusters of quasars:

1. The size of the quasar structure is larger than the maximum structure that can occur with the current cosmological model, invalidating the cosmological principal.

2. The standard model for quasars assumes there must be in falling gas to turn on a quasar. The quasars in question are 1000s of light years apart. There is no mechanism to simultaneously turn on 73 quasars in an immense region of space. Connect with the lack of a mechanism to simultaneously turn on 73 disconnected quasars is the necessity to inhibit turning on quasars in other locations in the universe to explain why there are not more observed quasars in the universe. (i.e. What is special in the region of space where there are 73 turned on quasars.) The problem is more acute as there are quasar turning on and turning off constraints to explain the very, very peculiar change of number of quasar per unit volume with redshift and the change of quasar luminosity with redshift.

Comment: Quasars are an interesting topic. A separate thread will be started to summarize the new observations concerning quasars after the thread to discuss the new observations concerning galaxy formation and evolution anomalies. One of the key anomalies that might be related to explaining the quasar clustering paradox is the fact that quasars do not exhibit time dilation. Other distant time varying objects such a super nova exhibit time dilation. I will start a separate thread to discuss quasars after the thread on disc galaxies.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1211.6256v1

Large Scale Quasar Groups

...A Large Quasar Group (LQG) of particularly large size and high membership has been identified in the DR7QSO catalogue of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. It has characteristic size (volume1/3) ~ 500 Mpc (proper size, present epoch), longest dimension ~ 1240 Mpc, membership of 73 quasars, and mean redshift z = 1.27.

...This new, huge LQG appears to be the largest structure currently known in the early universe. Its size suggests incompatibility with the Yadav et al. scale of homogeneity for the concordance cosmology, and thus challenges the assumption of the cosmological principle. ...

...We can estimate the masses of these main and branch sets from their CHMS volumes by assuming that ... ... We find that the mass contained within the main set is~ 4.8 × 10^18M⊙ and within the branch set is ~ 1.3 × 10^18M⊙. Compared with the expectations for their volumes these values correspond to mass excesses of ~2.6 × 10^18M⊙ and ~ 0.8 × 10^18M⊙ respectively. The total mass excess is then ~3.4 × 10^18M⊙, equivalent to ~ 1300 Coma clusters (Kubo et al. 2007), ~50 Shapley superclusters (Proust et al. 2006), or ~ 20 Sloan Great Walls (Sheth & Diaferio 2011).

This is a link to the preprint of the published 2010 paper.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1004.1824

This the link to the published 2010 paper.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16581.x/abstract

On time dilation in quasar light curves

In this paper we set out to measure time dilation in quasar light curves. In order to detect the effects of time dilation, sets of light curves from two monitoring programmes are used to construct Fourier power spectra covering time-scales from 50d to 28yr. Data from high- and low-redshift samples are compared to look for the changes expected from time dilation. The main result of the paper is that quasar light curves do not show the effects of time dilation. Several explanations are discussed, including the possibility that time dilation effects are exactly offset by an increase in time-scale of variation associated with black hole growth, or that the variations are caused by microlensing in which case time dilation would not be expected.

1 INTRODUCTION

Time dilation (the stretching of time by a factor of (1 + z)) is a fundamental property of an expanding universe. Given the success of the the currently accepted cosmological model, which certainly implies expansion, it is perhaps surprising that more attention has not been paid to making direct measures of time dilation. This must surely be due in part to the fact that measures of time dilation can tell little or nothing about cosmological parameters within the framework of a Big Bang universe, but only whether or not the Universe is expanding. Also, it turns out to be surprisingly hard to formulate a conclusive test for time dilation. What is needed is an event or fluctuation of known rest frame duration which can be observed at sufficiently high redshift with an accuracy which enables the predicted stretching by a factor of (1 + z) to be observed.

5 INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS

The results of Section 4 provide strong evidence that the effects of time dilation are not seen in quasar light curves. This clearly runs against expectations based on a conventional cosmological viewpoint, and so in this section we examine ways in which the results may be understood.

There are piles of observational anomalies/paradoxes that are appearing due to multi spectrum and large scale survey observations. This thread is a summary of a few of the key large scale anomalies, explaining why the observation/analysis is a paradox/anomaly and providing a little background into the subject.

Large Scale Quasar Clusters

20 years ago there were claims that there were anomalous unexplained clusters of quasars. Subsequent to the claim of quasar clusters, there were multiple papers published that asserted that quasars are evenly distributed in the universe and there is no quasar clustering. There is now unequivocal observational evidence that there are clusters of quasars,

There are multiple paradoxes associated with clusters of quasars:

1. The size of the quasar structure is larger than the maximum structure that can occur with the current cosmological model, invalidating the cosmological principal.

2. The standard model for quasars assumes there must be in falling gas to turn on a quasar. The quasars in question are 1000s of light years apart. There is no mechanism to simultaneously turn on 73 quasars in an immense region of space. Connect with the lack of a mechanism to simultaneously turn on 73 disconnected quasars is the necessity to inhibit turning on quasars in other locations in the universe to explain why there are not more observed quasars in the universe. (i.e. What is special in the region of space where there are 73 turned on quasars.) The problem is more acute as there are quasar turning on and turning off constraints to explain the very, very peculiar change of number of quasar per unit volume with redshift and the change of quasar luminosity with redshift.

Comment: Quasars are an interesting topic. A separate thread will be started to summarize the new observations concerning quasars after the thread to discuss the new observations concerning galaxy formation and evolution anomalies. One of the key anomalies that might be related to explaining the quasar clustering paradox is the fact that quasars do not exhibit time dilation. Other distant time varying objects such a super nova exhibit time dilation. I will start a separate thread to discuss quasars after the thread on disc galaxies.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1211.6256v1

Large Scale Quasar Groups

...A Large Quasar Group (LQG) of particularly large size and high membership has been identified in the DR7QSO catalogue of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. It has characteristic size (volume1/3) ~ 500 Mpc (proper size, present epoch), longest dimension ~ 1240 Mpc, membership of 73 quasars, and mean redshift z = 1.27.

...This new, huge LQG appears to be the largest structure currently known in the early universe. Its size suggests incompatibility with the Yadav et al. scale of homogeneity for the concordance cosmology, and thus challenges the assumption of the cosmological principle. ...

...We can estimate the masses of these main and branch sets from their CHMS volumes by assuming that ... ... We find that the mass contained within the main set is~ 4.8 × 10^18M⊙ and within the branch set is ~ 1.3 × 10^18M⊙. Compared with the expectations for their volumes these values correspond to mass excesses of ~2.6 × 10^18M⊙ and ~ 0.8 × 10^18M⊙ respectively. The total mass excess is then ~3.4 × 10^18M⊙, equivalent to ~ 1300 Coma clusters (Kubo et al. 2007), ~50 Shapley superclusters (Proust et al. 2006), or ~ 20 Sloan Great Walls (Sheth & Diaferio 2011).

This is a link to the preprint of the published 2010 paper.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1004.1824

This the link to the published 2010 paper.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16581.x/abstract

On time dilation in quasar light curves

In this paper we set out to measure time dilation in quasar light curves. In order to detect the effects of time dilation, sets of light curves from two monitoring programmes are used to construct Fourier power spectra covering time-scales from 50d to 28yr. Data from high- and low-redshift samples are compared to look for the changes expected from time dilation. The main result of the paper is that quasar light curves do not show the effects of time dilation. Several explanations are discussed, including the possibility that time dilation effects are exactly offset by an increase in time-scale of variation associated with black hole growth, or that the variations are caused by microlensing in which case time dilation would not be expected.

1 INTRODUCTION

Time dilation (the stretching of time by a factor of (1 + z)) is a fundamental property of an expanding universe. Given the success of the the currently accepted cosmological model, which certainly implies expansion, it is perhaps surprising that more attention has not been paid to making direct measures of time dilation. This must surely be due in part to the fact that measures of time dilation can tell little or nothing about cosmological parameters within the framework of a Big Bang universe, but only whether or not the Universe is expanding. Also, it turns out to be surprisingly hard to formulate a conclusive test for time dilation. What is needed is an event or fluctuation of known rest frame duration which can be observed at sufficiently high redshift with an accuracy which enables the predicted stretching by a factor of (1 + z) to be observed.

5 INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS

The results of Section 4 provide strong evidence that the effects of time dilation are not seen in quasar light curves. This clearly runs against expectations based on a conventional cosmological viewpoint, and so in this section we examine ways in which the results may be understood.