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Fraser
2004-Sep-28, 04:17 PM
SUMMARY: It's been said that an army travels on its stomach. Well, that's true with astronauts too. Especially when they're headed to Mars, and might need to stay a few years; or maybe even build a colony. The question is, how much space, soil, water, energy and air does it take to keep astronauts alive on another planet if they're growing all their own food? Ray Collins has locked himself inside a greenhouse in Alaska, and he's working towards discovering the answer.

What do you think about this story? Post your comments below.

antoniseb
2004-Sep-28, 05:34 PM
Yum, potatos. I wonder how many square meters it takes to grow enough canola for the oil to turn them into french fries. Ketchup might get a little tough to make, as it requires vinegar [from what, apples, grapes], which must take a few square meters all by itself.

Ray Collins
2004-Sep-28, 05:50 PM
Originally posted by antoniseb@Sep 28 2004, 05:34 PM
Yum, potatos. I wonder how many square meters it takes to grow enough canola for the oil to turn them into french fries. Ketchup might get a little tough to make, as it requires vinegar [from what, apples, grapes], which must take a few square meters all by itself.
Too many probably, I think it would be a matter of not eating for a few days if you wanted to have canola oil! I have made a sauce from tomatoes that isn't TOO bad, though ketchup would certainly be MUCH better. Also need sugar to make ketchup though; and sugar poses more area problems.
Of course on in a real extra-terrestrial CELSS things like oils and sugars that are not needed in large quantities would probably be imported. Over time that would give you extra carbon and other nutrients, and these could be used to offset losses (for example, every time you go outside you'll loose air) or perhaps for expansion.
Ray C.
Mars Base Zero inhabitant

lswinford
2004-Sep-28, 06:13 PM
Alright! Something constructive that the Biosphere people were supposed to do, and at a far, far bigger budget, but didn't.

BTW, I seem to recall that Gerard O'Neil estimated feeding some 70-80 people per acre of growing space. Although I also seem to recall that others, in earth-based purposes used similar estimates for feeding humanity using hydroponic systems, though I don't recall how O'Neil arrived at his number, whether he used the hydroponic guestimates or not. From the pictures, I expect that Collins could get by with less space by choosing different containers and how they are ordered on the growing space array.

Either way, I think it is great news.

RayRC
2004-Sep-28, 06:54 PM
Originally posted by lswinford@Sep 28 2004, 06:13 PM
Alright! Something constructive that the Biosphere people were supposed to do, and at a far, far bigger budget, but didn't.

BTW, I seem to recall that Gerard O'Neil estimated feeding some 70-80 people per acre of growing space. Although I also seem to recall that others, in earth-based purposes used similar estimates for feeding humanity using hydroponic systems, though I don't recall how O'Neil arrived at his number, whether he used the hydroponic guestimates or not. From the pictures, I expect that Collins could get by with less space by choosing different containers and how they are ordered on the growing space array.

Either way, I think it is great news.
Using my growing methods I'd probably be able to support 55 people per acre (1 per 800 square feet), so this isn't too far off from O'Neil's estimates. Depending on where you look in the literature you'll find figures as low as 250 square feet, but that is based on intense lights and hydroponics of the most productive plant possible;not a very desireable diet.

Our crop beds are laid out in 12' x 12' squares, 3 squares wide and 2 squares deep. 4 of these squares are intensely planted; one is about 1/3 planted, 1/3 storage (water, tools, etc) and 1/3 work area. The last square is basically unused (well, it is serving as a collection point for construction stuff). This last square is where we'll put the fish (we have a 4' by 8' fish tank), compost pile (already started), and hopefully a few more plants--things to add enjoyment to the diet, rather than just sustenance! Also we'll need the extra space to improve nutrition; some of the things we need to grow for nutritional purposes don't generate many calories.

Ray C.
Mars Base Zero inhabitant

StarLab
2004-Sep-28, 07:08 PM
Wow&#33; Well, this certainly should be...interesting. :huh: :lol: :P :rolleyes: <_< :unsure: :ph34r: :wacko:

lswinford
2004-Sep-29, 07:58 PM
RayRC
Now I&#39;m just asking, and certainly not complaining, but why didn&#39;t you use hydroponics and artificial lighting? Filtering light for the moon or mars would be a serious but necessary pain, considering the spectrum our atmosphere traps out. And the design and orientation problems with space-based gardening, be it space station or interplanetary travel, would be greatly simplified with artificial lighting. Then too, there is the CO2-O2 issue that your open garden raises, are you tracking the gases too? Again, I think what you are doing is great so don&#39;t read any criticism in this.

BTW: have you considered filling in your plant patterns geometrically (again, I&#39;m inferring from the few available pictures)? When some plants rise to branch out, there is ground space that might include somethings short and narrow below and between them. Staggering the circles reserved for a plant removes some of the empty space in our normally square-based grids, marginally allowing for more rows. But with a squared lattice array of plants you might insert some onions or wheat between the other taller plants. That won&#39;t work where you are growing low bunches, like lettuce, but depending on how close you pack your cabbages a couple of wheat or onion sprouts together between four cabbage heads will minimize competition and add to productive utilized space--you know, those empty spaces that weeds usually fill in for you. Then too, by directing spreading plants (beans, peas, even pumpkins) into an upward growing supported lattice work will also optimize useable ground space. That&#39;s too much for common gardening but I expect it will be necessary for space-based gardeners to pack things as close as possible.

RayRC
2004-Sep-30, 04:20 AM
We have 40 x 1,000 watt lights. Our power supply is currently not much more than an extension cord (150 feet of 10-2 running 240 volts, if you want to be specific), not big enough to support the lights...we need a power pole (&#036;2,500)..and it costs over &#036;100 a day to run the lights...if you&#39;ll send us the money, we&#39;ll turn them on *grin*.

Hydroponics is another story: when we first started that is the way we wanted to go. So we played with it some; got some great yields, and a pile of organic matter. Hmm, what to do with it? So we composted it, made compost tea and used the tea for the hydroponics. Now, what do we do with the left over compost? Might as well grow a few plants in it. Now we are right back to a soil-based method. So we decided to just leave out the hydroponics part of it...

Our structure is currently so open that there is no opportunity to track any gasses. In the winter of &#39;99-00, when my wife and I stayed in here to get the kinks ironed out in the heating and a few other non-biological systems, we did have it tight enough to track CO2. We even experimented with raising the level from normal to 1,100 ppm using our propane stove. When we return to having a structure that tight we&#39;ll start tracking that kind of data again.

We have 6 squares, each of which is 12&#39; by 12&#39;. Four of these are filled with dirt, and planted very carefully to maximize crop and minimize everything else. One of the squares doesn&#39;t even have any paths--we access it via a moveable board until the crop gets too tall (by which time it drowns out the weeds). Our potatoes are planted in staggered rows, as close together as the mature plant can tolerate. Most other things are planted the same way. Our goal is a completely closed canopy about a month before harvest (depending on crop). So far we&#39;ve been pretty successful with this. When we get into more than one planting I&#39;d like to try planting, say, wheat a week before I harvest the, say, swiss chard. That way it will already have sprouted and be ready for light when I remove the old crop. Perhaps next year we can try this...

The only things that didn&#39;t have a closed canopy this year are either because they didn&#39;t grow for one reason or another, or their growth was sub-optimum.

BTW the two squares that are not filled with dirt remain primarily work squares; this is still a construction project. The last time we planted we only had three squares of dirt available, so we are making progress.

Ray C.
Mars Base Zero inhabitant

Tom2Mars
2004-Sep-30, 04:59 AM
Ray, Hi&#33;&#33; and welcome to the Forum. I think what you are doing is really, really great&#33; And, very needed.

If you are going to grow fish, you might check out:

Aquatic Eco-Systems (http://www.aquaticeco.com/) and ask for a catalog. They specialize in Aquaculture, Hydroponics and the blend of the two, Aquaponics. A very helpful and friendly company.

Re-
Now, what do we do with the left over compost?

I met a guy years ago from Eagle River, Alaska, Bob (have to look up his name for you, been so long), who put up an enclosed greenhouse attached to his house and had set up some greenhouses for an Eskimo village. He has experimented with Methane digesters as an alternative to composting with excellent results. The methane produced was used to run a generator, and the electricity produced ran the additional lights. The exhaust from the generator is CO2 and water vapor(warm water vapor&#33;), and it was run into the greenhouse, which the plants loved. The final effluent from the digester has 6 to 7 times the Nitrogen content as you get from composting (where most of the Nitrogen escapes into the air), and the effluent is therefore a great fertilizer.

Bob found that yields were increased almost 5 times. Might be something to try, although I would recommend putting in a monitoring/control system based on a single board/chip microprocessor for optimal operation and safety backups. If you&#39;re handy with electronics, microcomputers are only about &#036;5 now, plus some costs for interfacing.

Keep up the good work&#33; When I build the ships and leave for Mars, you&#39;re welcome to come along. :)

RayRC
2004-Sep-30, 05:35 PM
> Aquatic Eco-Systems
I took a look at their web page; looks like a really good company. Thanks for pointing them out for me.

>I met a guy years ago from Eagle River, Alaska, Bob
If you do find his address/etc I would very much like to talk to him. Not sure I&#39;d want exhaust a generator directly into a greenhouse I was locked up in though; even burning methane produces CO. Interesting he got such great yields.

Do you know any sources for those board/chip microprocessors?

>When I build the ships and leave for Mars, you&#39;re welcome to come along.
*grin* Keep me on your list&#33;

Ray C.
Mars Base Zero inhabitant

lswinford
2004-Sep-30, 09:06 PM
if you&#39;ll send us the money, we&#39;ll turn them on *grin*.

I&#39;ll tell you what, in my pocket is a powerball ticket for something like a &#036;150 million pot (since I would take the cash, it would be about half that), IF I win this weekend, I&#39;ll have a cylindar the size of some upper stage rocket fuel tank constructed and a solar cell array to power it and you can build a garden that will have the NASA people climbing all over themselves to copy. Fair enough? ;)

BTW, have you considered carp to eat up your excess veggie matter? Some fish farms, even old Chinese fish farms, feed their carp grass. You might test what kinds of plants they do and don&#39;t like, but instead of composting everything, feed the extra leaves and stalks to the fish. Watch the potatoes and tomatoes however, I understand there is some toxicity in their residue that some other plants and perhaps more might not like.

Ugh&#33; I just had a terrible thought. What if, in the name of ecological efficiency, future astronauts who grow their own food have to start adding ants and grasshoppers to their diet? Select bugs could get rid of some unwanted plant residues--oh, yeah, so you need chickens to eat the grasshoppers you bring in to clear out the excess leaves and stalks&#33;

damienpaul
2004-Sep-30, 11:54 PM
and ol&#39; macdonald to run the ol&#39; farm ee-i ee-i ee-i-o

Tom2Mars
2004-Oct-01, 04:04 AM
RayRC, Re-
I met a guy years ago from Eagle River, Alaska, Bob
If you do find his address/etc I would very much like to talk to him. Not sure I&#39;d want exhaust a generator directly into a greenhouse I was locked up in though; even burning methane produces CO.

Here is the reference for the grant that Robert Crosby worked on:

Bob Crosby Grant (http://www.dced.state.ak.us/astf/index.cfm?FuseAction=Grants&View=Summary&GrantType=Grants&Grants_ID=3464&proj_number=89-3-326) His contact info is in there, a bit dated, but it might help you track him down.

The greenhouses he tested were mainly plant growth areas, no one lived in them, but they worked in them. I&#39;m not sure how he handled any CO, are there scrubbers for that? I know AES also sells or has books for CO2 "generators" which were basically some kind of combustion unit to produce CO2 from natural gas or propane, sometimes methane (CH4).

You could try a generator hooked up to heat exchangers, air-to-air, and air-to-water, to recover most of the exhaust heat, and use the heat component for space heating. The incoming cool air should cause dewpoint to be reached in the exhausted air, if you want to recover the water. I have tested exchangers made of metal and also of ceramic for that. Use flourescents for the lights >more light, less heat.

You can also look into fuel cells, they can process methane, maybe without the CO being produced, and definitely at higher efficiency than a generator.

Re-
Do you know any sources for those board/chip microprocessors?

One good source is: Cypress Semiconductor (http://www.cypress.com/)

Their uP&#39;s have a lot of lots of pinouts, great for experimentation and breadboarding.

Look into the " Embedded Processors and Controllers" section, at the Control Communictions topic.

Then there is Motorola (http://www.futurlec.com/ICMotorola.shtml) and also check out
Motorola Resources (http://www.ucpros.com/Resources.htm)

Some other references at: sTechnical Ref&#39;s (http://www.futurlec.com/Technical.shtml)

Some good hands-on practical applications are found at the Jedi Master of control and interfacing site of Steve Ciarcia: Ciarcia&#39;s Circuit Cellar (http://www.circuitcellar.com/)

A tiny microcontroller, maybe tougher to work with for Newbies is from: Microchip (http://www.microchip.com/stellent/idcplg?IdcService=SS_GET_PAGE&nodeId=2060)
It has only 6 pins, and is almost magical...but you really have to plan your programming strategy for it, and it is cheap. Mostly useful for production runs of commercial products after your R&D phase.

Beware, this is a whole new world&#33; The learning curve may be high, but if you have the time it is really cool to build a computer and program it from scratch for only a few bucks. It can make you feel all powerful and giddy inside.

Or, if you want, wait until I get the &#39;Mark V Martian Habitat Controller&#39; up and running and become a research affiliate. I&#39;ll swap you for salad fixins. :P

RayRC
2004-Oct-01, 08:18 PM
Originally posted by lswinford@Sep 30 2004, 01:06 PM
BTW, have you considered carp to eat up your excess veggie matter?
Yes, carp would be a good one. Or any other detritivore that would eat waste vegitation...catching energy as it falls back down through the food chain will be a good way to not only improve the diet, but reduce the area needed for crops (if I had a carp on the table, I&#39;d not need to pick that potato plant I need to pick for lunch today&#33;) Not real sure on where I could get ahold of carp to try though&#33; Any suggestions?

Yes, potatoes (and I think tomatoes?) are in the nightshade family, whose green parts contain the poison solaine.

I have seriously considered ants and grasshoppers, or other insects. Normally this idea would turn me off, but after 2 weeks of not much besides potatoes, they are starting to sound pretty good&#33;

Chickens are something we&#39;ve tried. I&#39;m not impressed with the amount of food they need...but the eggs sure are nice&#33;

Ray C.
Mars Base Zero inhabitant

RayRC
2004-Oct-01, 08:20 PM
Originally posted by damienpaul@Sep 30 2004, 03:54 PM
and ol&#39; macdonald to run the ol&#39; farm ee-i ee-i ee-i-o
Ol&#39; McDonald would probably do better than I at growing potatoes, I dare say...him being an Irishman and all.... ;)

RayRC
2004-Oct-01, 08:31 PM
Originally posted by Tom2Mars@Sep 30 2004, 08:04 PM
Here is the reference for the grant that Robert Crosby worked on

Thanks very much for all the references&#33;

I am not aware of any scrubbers for CO. It is toxic in such small amounts that I&#39;m not sure scrubbers would be a very good way to go anyhow...

Flourescent lights are actually not as efficient as some of the commercial greenhouse lights you can get (though my information is a little dated; not sure how they compare to the new flourescent bulbs).

As soon as you get the Mark V Martian Habitat Controller up lets us know...we&#39;ll be glad to swap you for salad fixins, maybe even throw in a few potatoes&#33;

Ray C.
Mars Base Zero inhabitant

Duane
2004-Oct-02, 12:50 AM
Hi Ray&#33; First off, welcome to the forum, and thank you so much for both registering and taking time to answer questions. I am hoping you will keep us updated on your progress along with any surprises, good or bad :)

Is your current diet basically vegetable only? If so, what are you doing for protein?

I have seen lots of carp being sold around town (Calgary, AB) so I have always assumed they were reasonably easy to get.

Instead of chickens you might consider pigeons. Their eggs are smaller but definately edible, and they make excellent meals, especially the larger breeds (Like kings). They are also a lot less labour intensive and eat significantly less.

Good luck&#33;

Oh and Hey Tom2Mars, when are you going to set up an experimental habitat? Looking for any volunteers? :ph34r:

Tom2Mars
2004-Oct-02, 04:09 AM
Duane, re-
Oh and Hey Tom2Mars, when are you going to set up an experimental habitat? Looking for any volunteers?

I have been offered a couple of locations in Colorado, one of them is big enough to build a pretty decent sized hands-on Conference Center focusing on Space R&D. The goal is to provide a fully functioning habitat for the attendees to stay in. During their stay, the attendees will construct more habitats, which include the "life support" systems (power, water and waste treatment). Money for the materials will come from part of the conference fee.

So, each week, more people can arrive and experience living in a space habitat, participate in the assembly activities, and also provide input/feedback so that improvements can be made.

Hopefully, there will always be some extra spaces available in case someone wants to stay and be part of the workforce. It would also be nice to have greenhouses for food production...Gee, I wonder who could help set up that area? ;)

RayRC
2004-Oct-02, 08:36 PM
Originally posted by Duane@Oct 1 2004, 04:50 PM
Is your current diet basically vegetable only? If so, what are you doing for protein?
Yes, right now I am a strict vegan--nothing but plants for food. My protein comes from potatoes, which provide a nearly balanced concentration of amino acids. There are a few other things that I get protein from (eg cabbage), but with the quantity of potatoes I eat every day that is where the vast majority of my protein comes from.

I have two difficulties with fish; first finding a place that will sell me *small* quantities of live fry (for some reason this seems to be more of an obsticle than you&#39;d think), and second is getting them to Alaska alive. The second isn&#39;t a huge problem; I&#39;ve done it a couple of times with Tilapia over the last 20 years...

Quail are another bird I&#39;ve thought about. But chickens have the best ratio of feed to egg of any bird, so we&#39;d probably go with them--if we do decide to try for eggs again.

Cheers,
Ray C.
Mars Base Zero inhabitant

Duane
2004-Oct-04, 06:37 PM
Cool. Maybe smaller chickens could do the trick--something like cornish games hens? Heh, I bet you could use a few new potatoe recipies?&#33;?

RayRC
2004-Oct-04, 10:18 PM
Originally posted by Duane@Oct 4 2004, 10:37 AM
Heh, I bet you could use a few new potatoe recipies?&#33;?
We have done quite a bit of investigation of chickens, and the ones that are the most productive in terms of feed to egg yield are just your common chicken like Rode Island Reds.

Always&#33; Problem is I don&#39;t have any butter or fats, nor much in the way of spices. Which most potato recipes call for. I made something kind of interesting last night; I took a cabbage leaf and essentually made a burrito out of it. Which I stuffed with potatoes, onions, lettuce and tomato. It wasn&#39;t TOO bad...

Ray C.
Mars Base Zero inhabitant

Duane
2004-Oct-05, 07:03 PM
Do you have anything like powdered soup or boullion? If so, this one is nice:

1 med onion
1/2 Cup chopped parsley
2 cups chicken stock (or boullion)
Salt & pepper to taste

Heat the onions to soften (fried is better, but if you have no oil...) then add the potatoes, parsley and chicken stock. Cook until the potatoes are done. (about 20 minutes)

Interesting about the chickens. I guess it would make sense from an egg standpoint. I was really thinking more about eating the chicken though :D. As a plus, you could also make up chicken stock and use the rendered fat as oil for frying.

As an aside, one of the issues the Biosphere 2 project ran into was an overabundance of microbes in the soil messing up the O2 ratio. Have you done anything to prevent/deal with that?

RayRC
2004-Oct-06, 04:40 AM
Originally posted by Duane@Oct 5 2004, 11:03 AM
Do you have anything like powdered soup or boullion?
No, I don&#39;t have any bullion. This recipe is close to what I made for dinner though: potatoes, onions, parsley. I also added cabbage and beets. Turned out ok...

The oxygen problem in Biosphere II was due to the fact they didn&#39;t run it as a semi-open environment long enough to get microbe degradation balanced with dead matter production. Also their concrete absorbed a great deal of oxygen, which aggrivated the problem...

Miss V
2004-Oct-10, 01:41 AM
Originally posted by RayRC+Oct 1 2004, 08:18 PM--></div><table border='0' align='center' width='95%' cellpadding='3' cellspacing='1'><tr><td>QUOTE (RayRC &#064; Oct 1 2004, 08:18 PM)</td></tr><tr><td id='QUOTE'><!--QuoteBegin-lswinford@Sep 30 2004, 01:06 PM
BTW, have you considered carp to eat up your excess veggie matter?
Yes, carp would be a good one. Or any other detritivore that would eat waste vegitation...catching energy as it falls back down through the food chain will be a good way to not only improve the diet, but reduce the area needed for crops (if I had a carp on the table, I&#39;d not need to pick that potato plant I need to pick for lunch today&#33;) Not real sure on where I could get ahold of carp to try though&#33; Any suggestions?

Yes, potatoes (and I think tomatoes?) are in the nightshade family, whose green parts contain the poison solaine.

I have seriously considered ants and grasshoppers, or other insects. Normally this idea would turn me off, but after 2 weeks of not much besides potatoes, they are starting to sound pretty good&#33;

Chickens are something we&#39;ve tried. I&#39;m not impressed with the amount of food they need...but the eggs sure are nice&#33;

Ray C.
Mars Base Zero inhabitant[/b][/quote]
[B] Had you given thought to using hogs for this purpose? Other than having to saturate their food with water, they can eat almost anything; food scraps, veggie peelings, and have teeth sharp enough to eat even corncobs. Pork is also something that can be preserved very easily for long periods of time.

RayRC
2004-Oct-11, 07:40 PM
Originally posted by Miss V@Oct 9 2004, 05:41 PM
Had you given thought to using hogs for this purpose? Other than having to saturate their food with water, they can eat almost anything; food scraps, veggie peelings, and have teeth sharp enough to eat even corncobs. Pork is also something that can be preserved very easily for long periods of time.
I am producing about 5 gallons of waste plant material per week. I&#39;m not sure how much a hog eats, but I&#39;m pretty sure it would be more than this&#33; Although I guess there are some pigmy hogs that might work...

Ray C.
Mars Base Zero inhabitant: Day 24

RayRC
2004-Oct-11, 07:44 PM
I&#39;ve posted the Week 3 Closure Update and a few other files if you
want to check them out they are linked from:
http://isecco.org/projects/celss/marsbase/...4/04_index.html (http://isecco.org/projects/celss/marsbase/2004/04_index.html)

New/updated files linked from that page:
*Foods eaten: third week
*Closure diary
*Questions & answers
*Updates: week three

Enjoy&#33;
Ray C.
Mars Base Zero inhabitant::day 24

RayRC
2004-Oct-18, 09:29 AM
Week 4 Update now available...

Well I&#39;ve been closed up in here for nearly a month now. Everything is going pretty well; a minor health problem, probably caused by a shortage of sodium--but I&#39;ve added salt to the diet, and that seems to be helping.

I&#39;m also running out of potatoes, and when they are gone I&#39;ll essentually be out of food. So my time is starting to get short...

The full update is at:
http://isecco.org/projects/celss/marsbase/...04/update4.html (http://isecco.org/projects/celss/marsbase/2004/update4.html)

Enjoy&#33;
Ray C.
Mars Base Zero::Day 30

RayRC
2004-Oct-24, 08:29 AM
Starvation imminent in Mars Base Zero

Starvation. It is right around the corner. If I was on Mars with no re-supply I&#39;d be in big trouble. Several days ago I picked my last cabbage, though there is still half of it left. Last night I picked my last beet, and although I&#39;m hoping I can root around and find another onion or two, I may not. Carrots: almost gone. Spinach: just a few leaves left. Turnips: not a lot. Wheat: all gone except that reserved for seed. Potatoes...they are the key, since 94% of my calories comes from them. I have 6 plants left. I usually harvest 2 plants per day, though on some days I&#39;ve only eaten one--and on one day I had to pick 4 plants. So I am entering my last few days because I think perhaps I&#39;ll exit instead of starve *grin*

More about my health problems (solved); furnace breakdown (fixed on try #3); data tracked (tons), water usage (very low) and weather problems (snow) plus more in the full update at:
http://isecco.org/projects/celss/marsbase/...04/update5.html (http://isecco.org/projects/celss/marsbase/2004/update5.html)

Enjoy&#33;
Ray C.
Mars Base Zero::Out of onions :(

Duane
2004-Oct-26, 09:07 PM
I look forward to your recommendations for extending your stay next time out. I have to say I have thoroughly enjoyed your updates Ray :)

RayRC
2004-Nov-02, 08:03 AM
Thanks, Duane. It has been a pleasure to do them; I really enjoyed my stay in Mars Base Zero--and doing the updates was a part of that.

Everyone:
I have written the final update. It is available at:
http://isecco.org/projects/celss/marsbase/...04/update6.html (http://isecco.org/projects/celss/marsbase/2004/update6.html)

In it I discuss the media attention I got (starting with Universe Today); the percentage of complete support Mars Base Zero provided (43%) was a little better than we had hoped for; a discussion of my nutrition while locked up inside; future plans and announcing Workfest &#39;05 from May 21-31; and a list of files modified during the final 3 days of operation. Next week I will have photos from my stay in Mars Base Zero, and it will be my last post for awhile.

Cheers,
Ray
Mars Base Zero inhabitant no more :(

RayRC
2004-Nov-13, 04:12 AM
At last&#33; I got the photos I took while I was closed inside
Mars Base Zero back, and uploaded them to the web. I have
linked them from the links page:
http://isecco.org/projects/celss/marsbase/...4/04_index.html (http://isecco.org/projects/celss/marsbase/2004/04_index.html)
or you can go directly to the photo link page:
http://isecco.org/projects/celss/marsbase/...004/photos.html (http://isecco.org/projects/celss/marsbase/2004/photos.html)

Due to the fact that our web page is almost maxed out in
terms of space, the photos are loaded on my personal web
site (which resides on a friend&#39;s computer--Thanks Matt&#33;)
Once in awhile his computer is down; if you try to access
the photos and it fails just try again later.

Most of the first roll is not of Mars Base Zero, but of the
end of my sailing trip to Hawaii. Feel free to skip them if
you want...(ie I was lazy and didn&#39;t break the roll into 2
files).

I stopped by Mars Base Zero the other day to pick up some
books I&#39;d left. Sure was strange to have it cold inside,
with snow on the south half of the garden area. Wish I
could have stayed longer. Next year?

I would like to thank those who contributed to our cause.
We very much appreciate the help; it puts us that much very
close to being able to install our electrical system--which
will allow us to operate on into the winter next year.

We have a few projects to work on over the winter. I have
laid out how to utilize more space in square F; to do this
we&#39;ll have to build some planting trays and a platform
affair to let them roll back and forth to allow easy access.
Another possible project is to build a compost "machine";
and another is to make a human waste sterilizer. Not sure
how many (if any) of these we&#39;ll get to...

Through the dirt, to the Stars&#33;
Ray C.
Mars Base Zero inhabitant no more