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William
2007-Oct-08, 05:27 PM
The subject of Naked Active Galactic nuclei is theoretically and observationally connected to the papers that assert that BHs do not have an event horizon.

As noted in this thread,
(http://www.bautforum.com/astronomy/52879-black-holes-dont-exist-11.html#post1084616 ) one piece of evidence to support the assertion that BHs do not have an event horizon is the discovery of quasar structures that would require a very strong magnetic field to create. The papers quoted in this BAUT thread comment, assert that an accretion disk is not capable of generating the strong magnetic field that would be required to create the observed quasar structure. In the same BAUT comment, there is a link to a paper that notes a BH without an event horizon is theoretically in agreement with GR. (i.e. New physics is not required, to support the hypothesis that BH do not an event horizon.)

The observation of Naked AGN may provide additional support for the assertion that BHs, do not have an event horizon.

This paper provides an introduction to the observations and the issues concerning naked AGN.

Naked active galactic nuclei By M.Hawkins

http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0406163


Such ‘naked’ AGN appear to be quite common, comprising roughly 10% of the sample of the emission line galaxies observed, the remainder being Seyfert 1 galaxies with broad permitted lines, or non-variable objects with Seyfert 2 type spectra, which are presumably normal Seyfert 2 galaxies or starburst galaxies.


There is much anecdotal evidence from surveys based on UVX selection for objects with featureless spectra for which there is no plausible classification. Such objects are typically ignored for lack of observational evidence as to their nature.

Hawkins provides below the classical explanation of Naked AGN which is: "These naked AGN therefore would represent a period in the duty cycle intermediate between activity and dormancy. They would survive on the fuel reserves present in the accretion disc.". (See below for context of that short quote.)

I am not sure, however, how an AGN coasting period could generate the Naked AGN spectrum. i.e. If the accretion disk stops falling into the BH, what is left to generate the Naked AGN spectrum?

There are other papers that provide data that questions the hypothesis that Naked AGN is the coasting period in the duty cycle of AGN.


The broad line region has been seen as a fundamental part of the structure of AGN, although the unified model explains its presence rather than providing a compelling argument for its existence. It is now clear that in a significant fraction of AGN the broad line region is not present. Although here has been much debate over the structure of the BLR, there seems little doubt that it involves an interaction between the central accretion disc and a surrounding star cluster (Williams et al. 1999). The idea is that gas from the cluster falls onto the accretion disc causing a complex and unstable high velocity flow pattern in which the inflowing material is eventually accreted onto the central black hole or ejected as bi-polar winds. This high velocity turbulent gas is ionised by radiation from the accretion disc, resulting in the broad line emission. Williams et al. (1999) make the case that given inflowing material, this picture is virtually inevitable. On this basis it would thus appear that for those AGN where broad emission lines are not present, the source of inflowing material has dried up. These naked AGN therefore would represent a period in the duty cycle intermediate between activity and dormancy. They would survive on the fuel reserves present in the accretion disc.

William
2007-Oct-08, 05:57 PM
The following are observations that may be close to providing definite proof for the existence of a Naked AGN.

“Discovery of a bright quasar without a massive host galaxy”, By Magain, Letawe, Courbin, Jablonka, Jahnke, Meylan & Wisotzki

http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0509433


http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v437/n7057/abs/nature04013.html


Here we report on the observation of a quasar lying at the edge of a gas cloud, whose size is comparable to that of a small galaxy, but whose spectrum shows no evidence for stars. The gas cloud is excited by the quasar itself. If a host galaxy is present, it is at least six times fainter than would normally be expected, for such a bright quasar. The quasar is interacting dynamically with a neighbouring galaxy – which matter might be feeding the black hole.


These images confirm the strongly irregular shape of the companion galaxy, indicative of gravitational interaction with the quasar. However, the most interesting finding is that no significant host galaxy centered on the quasar position is found – we quantify this statement below. The most prominent feature is a diffuse albeit compact component, just beside the quasar (and to which we shall refer as “the blob” in the following), with a possible very faint extension around the quasar. If interpreted as an image of the host galaxy, we would have the surprising result that the quasar does not reside inside its host, but just next to it.

The following is the authors' attempt to explain the observations using the standard quasar disk accretion model. First how did the quasar become separated from its companion galaxy? And second if there is a mechanism to separate a quasar from its host galaxy, Why is the quasar still luminous? It must be coasting, producing radiation using remnant gas or some other process. For with the standard model BH have "no hair" and hence can only produce radiation through the accretion mechanism.


This peculiar quasar, therefore, has a host galaxy (if any) that is significantly less luminous than expected from its nuclear luminosity and black hole mass. Moreover, it suffers a strong dynamical interaction with an ultra–luminous infrared galaxy (a rare class of galaxies, systematically involved in collisions). These two peculiarities are most probably related. One might suggest that the host galaxy has disappeared from our view as a result of the collision, but it is hard to imagine how the complete disruption of a galaxy could happen. An alternative suggestion would be that an isolated black hole may have captured gas and become a quasar while crossing the disk of the neighboring galaxy with a low relative speed (the radial velocity difference between the quasar and different parts of the galaxy ranges between –60 and +200 km s–1). However, such a gravitational accretion of matter is very inefficient and the dynamical interaction of a large galaxy with an 8×10^8 solar masses black hole would probably not induce such strong perturbations as observed in the companion galaxy.

StupendousMan
2007-Oct-09, 01:11 AM
First how did the quasar become separated from its companion galaxy?


If two galaxies, each with a supermassive black hole, merge, then the black holes may interact strongly with each other. In some circumstances, one of the black holes may be ejected from the center of the galaxy. There are a number of groups working on the numerical solutions to interacting black holes (one of them here at RIT where I work), and some of the astronomers here are searching for more examples of supermassive black holes which have left their host galaxies.




And second if there is a mechanism to separate a quasar from its host galaxy, Why is the quasar still luminous? It must be coasting, producing radiation using remnant gas or some other process. For with the standard model BH have "no hair" and hence can only produce radiation through the accretion mechanism.

Absolutely right. There must still be some gas in the general vicinity for the black hole to be accreting.

Cougar
2007-Oct-09, 02:52 AM
If two galaxies, each with a supermassive black hole, merge, then the black holes may interact strongly with each other. In some circumstances, one of the black holes may be ejected from the center of the galaxy.
I imagine at least one such interacting black hole would have to have had a previous 'minor' encounter to give it enough relative velocity for a closer 'fly-by' with the other supermassive black hole to give it a good fling rather than a merge.

William
2007-Oct-09, 03:01 AM
Stupendous Man,

I believe there is currently no theoretical explanation for the Naked AGN spectrum. (i.e. It is not simply a matter of stripping a host galaxy from a BH to produce the observed naked AGN spectrum.) Note also that basic fundamental components of AGN currently do not have physical explanation. (See quoted below) i.e. The AGN/quasar models are black box models as opposed to a physical model. The black box model may be completely theoretical, a blind alley.) I will repeat the comment concerning radio active AGN and MECCO hypothesis.

A Chandra view of naked active galactic nuclei, By Gliozzi, Sambruna, & Foschini

http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0703269


The existence of AGNs without broad-line region (BLR) is apparently at odds with the standard unification models. However, it must be outlined that, although the unification models are able to explain most of the AGN observational properties, they do not offer any insight into the physical origin of some basic AGN ingredients, namely the BLR, the NLR, and the torus. Therefore, detailed investigations of AGNs without BLR have the potential of shedding some light on the physical mechanisms that lead to the suppression (and possibly also to the formation) of the BLR.

William
2007-Oct-09, 03:25 AM
Hi Stupendous Man,

Here is something to think about.

There is observational evidence that supports the assertion that the BHs which drives Quasars do not have an event horizon. If the BH does not have a event horizon it can emit its own spectrum which may explain quasar spectrum observations.

The following are two of a set of three papers that provide observational evidence and theoretical support for the existence of eternally collapsing "black" holes. As the hypothesized eternally collapsing "black holes" do not have an event horizon, they are not black and they are hypothesized to produce an intrinsic extremely strong magnetic field. As noted below the "black hole's" intrinsic extremely strong magnetic field is required to explain quasar features which require an extremely strong magnetic field to produce. The authors note the quasar accretion disk mechanism is theoretically not capable of generating the observed quasar magnetic field.


Observations supporting the existence of an intrinsic magnetic moment inside the central compact object with in the Quasar Q0957+561 by Schild, Leiter, and Roberston.

http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0505518


ABSTRACT
Recent brightness fluctuation and auto-correlation analysis of time series data, and micro-lensing size scales, seen in Q0957+561 A,B, have produced important information about the existence and characteristic physical dimensions of a new non-standard magnetically dominated internal structure contained within this quasar. This new internal quasar structure, which we shall call the Schild-Vakulik Structure, can be consistently explained in terms of a new class of gravitationally collapsing solutions to the Einstein field equations which describe highly red shifted, Eddington limited, Magnetospheric, eternally Collapsing Objects (MECO) that contain intrinsic magnetic moments. Since observations of the Schild-Vakulik structure within Q0957+561 imply that this quasar contains an observable intrinsic magnetic moment, this represents strong evidence that the quasar does not have an event horizon.


The Magnetospheric Eternally Collapsing Object (MECO) Model of Galactic Black Hole Candidates and Active Galactic Nuclei by Stanley Robertson and Darryl Leiter.

http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0602453


Abstract
The spectral, timing, and jet formation properties of neutron stars in low mass x-ray binary systems are influenced by the presence of central magnetic moments. Similar features shown by the galactic black hole candidates (GBHC) strongly suggest that their compact cores might be intrinsically magnetic as well. We show that the existence of intrinsically magnetic GBHC is consistent with a new class of solutions of the Einstein field equations of General Relativity.

These solutions are based on a strict adherence to the Strong Principle of Equivalence (SPOE) requirement that the world lines of physical matter must remain timelike in all regions of spacetime. …Since MECO lifetimes are orders of magnitude greater than a Hubble time, they provide an elegant and unified framework for understanding a broad range of observations of GBHC and active galactic nuclei. We examine their spectral, timing and jet formation properties and discuss characteristics that might lead to their confirmation.

StupendousMan
2007-Oct-09, 08:41 PM
I imagine at least one such interacting black hole would have to have had a previous 'minor' encounter to give it enough relative velocity for a closer 'fly-by' with the other supermassive black hole to give it a good fling rather than a merge.

Nope. Counter-intuitive, I admit. See "Ejection of Supermassive Black Holes from Galaxy Cores", by Gualandris and Merritt, http://arxiv.org/abs/0708.0771. Here's the abstract:


Recent numerical relativity simulations have shown that the emission of gravitational waves during the merger of two supermassive black holes (SMBHs) delivers a kick to the final hole, with a magnitude as large as 4000 km/s. We study the motion of SMBHs ejected from galaxy cores by such kicks and the effects on the stellar distribution using high-accuracy direct N-body simulations. Following the kick, the motion of the SMBH exhibits three distinct phases. (1) The SMBH oscillates with decreasing amplitude, losing energy via dynamical friction each time it passes through the core. Chandrasekhar's theory accurately reproduces the motion of the SMBH in this regime if 2 < ln Lambda < 3 and if the changing core density is taken into account. (2) When the amplitude of the motion has fallen to roughly the core radius, the SMBH and core begin to exhibit oscillations about their common center of mass. These oscillations decay with a time constant that is at least 10 times longer than would be predicted by naive application of the dynamical friction formula. (3) Eventually, the SMBH reaches thermal equilibrium with the stars. We estimate the time for the SMBH's oscillations to damp to the Brownian level in real galaxies and infer times as long as 1 Gyr in the brightest galaxies. Ejection of SMBHs also results in a lowered density of stars near the galaxy center; mass deficits as large as five times the SMBH mass are produced for kick velocities near the escape velocity. We compare the N-body density profiles with luminosity profiles of early-type galaxies in Virgo and show that even the largest observed cores can be reproduced by the kicks, without the need to postulate hypermassive binary SMBHs. Implications for displaced AGNs and helical radio structures are discussed.

William
2007-Oct-10, 03:35 AM
Stupendous Man,

It should be noted there are theoretical issues which the AGN accretion disk hypothesis does not as of yet theoretically explain, in addition to: How does the accretion disk mechanism produce the observed spectrum of naked AGN? I do not see how a classic hairless BH can produce the Naked AGN spectrum.


Stupendous Man or anyone else, do you way any ideas, how an accretion disk could produce the Naked AGH spectrum? Also see my quoted concerning detail quasar structures that require a massive magnetic field to produce. (Similar to a magnstar or a pulsar.) I repeat, it seems that a hairless classical BH cannot produce the observed spectrum for quasars or AGN.

It should be noted that very fundamental issues concerning the accretion disk mechanism have not been resolved and may not be resolvable. For example, see this paper January 2007 and the comment “Yet we still do not understand how gas gets down to the black hole.” (See below for a fuller quote for context.)

“Fuelling Active Galactic Nuclei”, By King and Pringle January, 2007

http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0701679


Yet we still do not understand how gas gets down to the black hole. There are a number of candidates, including galaxy mergers (major and minor), bars, bars within bars, turbulence in the ISM, stellar mass loss, and viscous accretion discs. However, the nature of the problem is often underestimated. For example, in a recent review article, Wada (2004) discusses ‘Fuelling Gas to the Central Region of Galaxies’ in terms of bringing gas inwards to around 100 pc from the central black hole. But, as emphasised by Shlosman, Begelman & Frank (1990), the gas must get to remarkably small radii before the inner viscous accretion disc can take over and bring the gas to the hole within the observed activity timescale. The inflow timescale through a disc of size 1 pc is already approx. 10^9 yr, even with maximal assumptions about viscosity. For shorter AGN phases, or less efficient viscosity, the gas must be fed to the central disc at still smaller radii.

Cougar
2007-Oct-10, 03:52 AM
Nope. Counter-intuitive, I admit. See "Ejection of Supermassive Black Holes from Galaxy Cores", by Gualandris and Merritt, http://arxiv.org/abs/0708.0771. Here's the abstract:
Wow.

Cougar
2007-Oct-10, 04:05 AM
It should be noted there are theoretical issues which the AGN accretion disk hypothesis does not as of yet theoretically explain...

So the glass is part empty?


How does the accretion disk mechanism produce the observed spectrum of naked AGN? I do not see how a classic hairless BH can produce the Naked AGN spectrum.

I thought S-Man answered that, in general terms: "There must still be some gas in the general vicinity for the black hole to be accreting." I'm no spectral specialist, but less disk => narrower lines, seems reasonable to me.


....quasar structures that require a massive magnetic field to produce.....

Whirling disks around SMBHs are going to be producing massive magnetic fields. What's the question? :confused:


It should be noted that very fundamental issues concerning the accretion disk mechanism have not been resolved and may not be resolvable.
Why wouldn't they be resolvable?



"It is rather ironic that the job of a scientist is to understand nature, and if the scientist completely succeeds, the reward is unemployment. But of the many things that concern me in the day-to-day existence of a scientist, waking up one morning and discovering that there are no problems to solve is rather low on the list." -- Rocky Kolb, Blind Watchers of the Sky

publius
2007-Oct-10, 06:10 AM
Guys, look up "MECOs", we've discussed them here before. :) Proponents of Mitra's ECO/MECO ideas claim some quasar observations support their model.

Oh, and the merging black holes do indeed give us a very non-Newtonian result. The (huge honking amounts of) gravitational radition is aniostropic and gives the merged result a linear radiation kick, which as mentioned above, can be quite enormous. That's very strange looking, as the center of mass flies off, something that would not happen in Newton. But that's the system pushing off against its own gravitational radiation field.

-RIchard

StupendousMan
2007-Oct-10, 03:40 PM
Oh, and the merging black holes do indeed give us a very non-Newtonian result. The (huge honking amounts of) gravitational radition is aniostropic and gives the merged result a linear radiation kick, which as mentioned above, can be quite enormous. That's very strange looking, as the center of mass flies off, something that would not happen in Newton. But that's the system pushing off against its own gravitational radiation field.

And the kicks are biggest when the two black holes each start out spinning really, really fast, _and_ have an initial orbit which also involves a good deal of angular momentum. I didn't mention the spinning bit in my earlier message --- sorry.

William
2007-Oct-11, 02:19 AM
In Reply to Cougar's comment:
I thought S-Man answered that, in general terms: "There must still be some gas in the general vicinity for the black hole to be accreting." I'm no spectral specialist, but less disk => narrower lines, seems reasonable to me.

The Naked AGN spectrum is flat. Less gas does not produce a flat spectrum. The emission source for the AGN appears to be unconnected with the accretion disk. i.e. No quasar company galaxy, very luminous quasar with a very different spectrum and no accretion disk. (Also note the lack of absorption lines in the Naked AGN spectrum. Please see Hawkins paper. The Naked AGN spectrum is at the end of the paper.)

The quasar spectrum is generated by a compact source illuminating the accretion disk. Call that hypothesis "2".



In reply to Cougar second comment:
Why wouldn't they be resolvable?

If hypothesis "1", thats the hypothesis that the accretion disk is the source of the illumination is incorrect, a couple of centuries more of model tweaking will not fix the fundamentally incorrect hypothesis.

Now on to the dusty quasar problem. Please note that as of yet the Naked Quasar illumination problem does not as yet have a solution. The theoretical problems appear to be plying up.

William
2007-Oct-11, 02:49 AM
Quasar Winds as Dust Factories at High Redshift by Martin Elvis, Massimo Marengo & Margarita Karovska

http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0311454

Quasars seem to be a general purpose astronomical object. Would not have thought the accretion disk mechanism could also be a "dust" factory. But as there is an observed massive amount of "dust" around high red shifted quasars, obviously with a little theoretical work, the accretion disk can also become a dust factory. Please read on and judge for yourself.


The most luminous quasars, in which the highest dust masses are found (Omont et al. 2001), have luminosities over 10^47erg s−1 and so may have mass loss rates >10 Solar mass yr−1. Assuming the same dust fraction as in AGB stars gives approx. 10^7 Solar mass of dust over a nominal 10^8 yr lifetime. This approaches the amounts detected but is still short by about an order-of-magnitude. However, super-solar abundances are common in high redshift quasars, certainly in carbon (Hamann & Ferland 1999), providing a higher density of raw material for the formation of precursor molecules.


Here we point out another, seemingly inevitable, path for dust formation up to at least z=6: quasar winds.

Is it just, me. I would not have thought quasar winds would create carbon dust. Early universe, hydrogen and helium? What the heck, perhaps a good strong wind could change hydrogen or helium to carbon. Let's not forget the issue with super solar metallicity in high red shift quasars. Perhaps the super solar metallicity can also be attributed to quasar winds.


Quasar winds provide an economical explanation for high z dust. Dust at z appro.=4 is observed primarily from observations of quasars and of sub-mm sources. If dust is everywhere and quasars illuminate this pre-existing dust then the total dust mass at z=4 is large.

Why quasar winds and not say fairies? Could the massive amount of carbon and oxygen (forgot to mention the O2), be a hint that the quasar compact object is generating the dust? No the all purpose accretion disk is clearly the best and only hypothesis to consider.


Dust is common in high redshift (z=4–6) quasars (Omont et al. 2001, Priddey & McMahon 2001), apparently implying that dust is widespread by this epoch. This presents a puzzle: how can so much dust be formed in the short time available? WMAP cosmology (Spergel et al. 2003) puts the age of the universe at z=6 to be only 0.95 Gyr, and the age of first reionization (and so the first stars) at an age of approx. 0.2 Gyr (z approx. = 20). In our galaxy the primary source of dust lies in the winds of red giant stars, specifically Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars. Only stars with masses greater than 2 M solar can reach the AGB in the less than approx. 1 Gyr available. Another source of dust is thus required.

William
2007-Oct-11, 03:04 AM
Publius’s comment concerning classical hairless BH.


Oh, and the merging black holes do indeed give us a very non-Newtonian result. The (huge honking amounts of) gravitational radiation is anisotropic and gives the merged result a linear radiation kick, which as mentioned above, can be quite enormous. That's very strange looking, as the center of mass flies off, something that would not happen in Newton. But that's the system pushing off against its own gravitational radiation field.

Publius, is it just me or does the hairless BH that is sort of a super vacuum and the hairless BH that can be a BH propellant seem to be sort of a kludge?

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kludge

MECCO’s may have been discussed before, however something must have missed in the discussion. Hairless BH appear to the only hypothesis that gets air time in the forum and frankly they seems to be having a couple of problems.

Cougar
2007-Oct-11, 03:25 AM
Please see Hawkins paper.

Hawkins says:


....it is argued that the central star cluster fuelling the accretion disc has ceased supplying gas, and the naked AGN represent a transition stage between activity and a dormant phase, in which the disc draws on its internal resources to maintain its energy output.

And before that he said:


"...it would thus appear that for those AGN where broad emission lines are not present, the source of inflowing material has dried up. These naked AGN therefore would represent a period in the duty cycle intermediate between activity and dormancy. They would survive on the fuel reserves present in the accretion disc." .


The Naked AGN spectrum is flat. Less gas does not produce a flat spectrum. The emission source for the AGN appears to be unconnected with the accretion disk.

This seems to contradict Hawkins' quotes above.


....i.e. No quasar company galaxy, very luminous quasar....

Are they 'very luminous'? I must have missed that. Or are they less luminous than your standard quasar?

William
2007-Oct-11, 03:41 AM
Stupendous Man

Hawkins presents the observation and somewhat ironically references the accretion disk mechanism. Obviously that mechanism does not explain what is being observed. Hawkins does not want to introduce a new hypothesis. To do so might jeopardize the publication of the observation. As long as no new theory is attached anomalies are almost welcome.

This paper discusses some of the theoretical issues and notes Hawkins does not attempt to explain what could be causing the observations.


http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0703269


in summary, the X-ray observations of naked AGNs seem to indicate that AGNs without BLR are associated not only with low-luminosity AGNs, as suggested by Nicastro (2000) and Laor (2003), but also with fairly powerful AGNs, as hypothesized by Bian & Gu (2007). This is also supported by the findings of Wolter et al. (2005), who detected with XMM-Newton three QSO 2 candidates, which do not show any sign of obscuration. These sources might be somewhat related to the naked AGNs discussed here, although their [O III]/H line ratios are more typical of NLS1 galaxies and they are one order of magnitude brighter in the X-ray band.



Our results are also in agreement with the findings of Steffen et al. (2003), who, using Chandra deep field data, showed that a sizable fraction of the local AGN population (z=0.1–1) is without broad lines and spans a large range of X-ray luminosities: LX 10^42 − 10^44 erg s−1. Importantly, they show that AGNs without BLRs (comprising both obscured objects and pure type 2 AGNs) in fact represent the dominant class of AGNs for X-ray luminosities below approx. 4 × 10^43 erg s−1.

Cougar
2007-Oct-11, 02:02 PM
....AGNs without BLR are associated... with low-luminosity AGNs....
Ahem.....

Saluki
2007-Oct-11, 02:40 PM
LOL. If this post title were used in any other type of forum, it would likely be referring to a new exploit of Britney Spears or Lindsay Lohan.

Only on BAUT, is it referring to a serious scintific topic.

William
2007-Oct-12, 02:33 AM
In reply to Cougar’s sceptical comment implying naked AGN are only dim shadows of the accretion disk mechanism. That statement appears to be incorrect.

From the abstract of this paper. “Some bright AGNs may genuinely lack a broad line region.” and “the temporal properties of the naked AGNs, are crucial to shed light on the central engine of these sources, which may be representative of a large class of AGNs.”

A CHANDRA VIEW OF NAKED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0703269


However, long-term optical monitoring campaigns, carried out over more than two decades, show that the same sources are strongly variable, like type 1 (un-obscured) AGNs. Based on short Chandra observations, the sources appear to be fairly bright in the X-rays, with typical Seyfert 1s values for the photon index (approx. Tau approx.1.8) and without significant intrinsic absorption, supporting the conclusion that some bright AGNs may genuinely lack a broad line region. Future, broad-band studies as well as deeper X-ray observations, probing both the spectral and the temporal properties of the naked AGNs, are crucial to shed light on the central engine of these sources, which may be representative of a large class of AGNs.

William
2007-Oct-12, 02:55 AM
In reply to Cougar's comment concerning the accretion disk producing the necessary quasar magnetic field.


Whirling disks around SMBHs are going to be producing massive magnetic fields. What's the question?

The specific observations concerning Quasar structure for Q0957 indicated that it has structures that are best explained by a compact object that has an intrinsic magnetic field. (Two different lines of reasoning are used to support that assertion.)

Observations supporting the existence of an intrinsic magnetic moment inside the central compact object with in the Quasar Q0957+561 by Schild, Leiter, and Roberston.

http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0505518

Since observations of the Schild-Vakulik structure within Q0957+561 imply that this quasar contains an observable intrinsic magnetic moment, this represents strong evidence that the quasar does not have an event horizon.


In the following sections we show that the two different lines of research discussed above converge in a manner allowing the construction of a logical chain of observational and theoretical arguments which solves the mystery of the physical origin of the Schild-Vakulik structure observed within the quasar Q0957.


However recent more accurate numerical estimates of the size of the inner quasar structure of Q0957 have implied that its size is actually larger than previously estimated and for this reason better explained as the luminous ring expected at the magnetospheric radius of an empirical quasar model in which the central compact object in the quasar is dominated by the dynamic effects of an intrinsic magnetic propeller acting in this sensitive inner region.This improved more accurate empirical quasar model for Q0957+561 has been found to be most consistently explained in the context of the recently discovered new class of gravitationally collapsing solutions to the Einstein field equations which describe compact gravitationally collapsing object in terms of highly red shifted, Magnetospheric, Eternally Collapsing Objects (MECO) that do not have trapped surfaces leading to event horizons. In the following paragraphs, in order to help the reader of this paper maintain the continuity and flow of the observational arguments which support the above conclusions, the specific details about the MECO model and the published articles associated with it have been put into a series of short appendices Appendix 1-11 and will be referred to when needed in order to clarify the details of specific calculations associated with the observational data.

AGN Fuel
2007-Oct-12, 03:21 AM
LOL. If this post title were used in any other type of forum, it would likely be referring to a new exploit of Britney Spears or Lindsay Lohan.

Only on BAUT, is it referring to a serious scintific topic.

It certainly freaked me out when I first read it....

William
2008-Mar-30, 11:14 PM
Does anyone have any thoughts or comments concerning naked AGN?

Any new papers, theoretical developments, or new observations concerning this subject?