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hhEb09'1
2009-Jan-19, 02:16 PM
This is the 6th (now Biennual) Astronomical Challenge. It is a Bricker quiz, like the five previous challenges (http://www.bautforum.com/showthread.php/64198). Please check out those challenges for strategies on how to play.

I will update the current scores as often as I can, and that should provide clues as to which answers are correct. You may borrow answers from other posters, if you like their answers, just by saying that you want to use their answers. You may change any of your answers by making a new post--a post with a single answer will change only that answer. Do not change your previous post. If you answer a single question multiple times within a single post, I will only consider the last answer. I might even change my own answer if I am convinced it is wrong, but I will make it clear that I have done so since it will change scoring. This year, if there is more than one right answer, you have to find my right answer. :)

2009's quiz is a celebration of the start of the International Year of Astronomy (www.astronomy2009.org/) (IYA), and most of the questions focus on Galileo. Since the topic is so narrow, some of the answers may seem like a scavenger hunt--you know what or where they are but you have to dig them out.

The Quiz:

1. The IYA is timed to be the 400th anniversary of Galileo's first use of the telescope to observe the sky. From today (January 19 in Italy), how far are we from the place in the Earth's orbit where Galileo made his observations, to the nearest week?

2. How many of the 89 IYA2009 National Node Websites do not use the number 2009 in their url?

3. In Galileo's Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences (Discorsi e Dimostrazioni Matematiche, intorno ā due nuoue scienze Attenenti alla Mecanica & i Movimenti Locali), which of the following subjects is not discussed:
--a) Nature abhors a vacuum
--b) Terminal velocity
--c) Percussion
--d) Equivalence of infinities
--e) Musical fifths

4. What does Langford's Galileo, Science and the Church, on page 17, say Galileo invented at age twenty-two?

5. Einstein and Infeld, The Evolution of Physics on page 36, discussing the problem of ambiguous measurements from people of different temperament, mention a solution: "an instrument designed in a primitive form by Galileo. Here again that familiar name!" Which instrument?

6. What famous artist died in the year that Galileo was born?

7. What famous scientist was born in the year that Galileo died?

8. In Giorgio de Santillana's The Crime of Galileo, on page 2, what does it say Galileo discovered at age nineteen?

9. Arthur Koestler's The Sleepwalkers, on page 471, mentions that Galileo dedicated his The Assayer (Il Saggiatore) to Cardinal Maffeo Barberini, who wrote an ode in honor of Galileo. Still, the opinions of Barberini were a strong influence when Pope Urban VIII placed Galileo under house arrest. Why?

10. In which sector of the moon is the crater Galileo? (N, NE, E, SE, etc.)

George
2009-Jan-19, 03:56 PM
Shooting from hip....



1. The IYA is timed to be the 400th anniversary of Galileo's first use of the telescope to observe the sky. From today (January 19 in Italy), how far are we from the place in the Earth's orbit where Galileo made his observations, to the [I]nearest week?

Silly! Everyone knows the Earth is the center of the universe and has no orbit! :hand:



2. How many of the 89 IYA2009 National Node Websites do not use the number 2009 in their url?
42


3. In Galileo's Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences (Discorsi e Dimostrazioni Matematiche, intorno ā due nuoue scienze Attenenti alla Mecanica & i Movimenti Locali), which of the following subjects is not discussed:
--a) Nature abhors a vacuum
--b) Terminal velocity
--c) Percussion
--d) Equivalence of infinities
--e) Musical fifths
"c" ; he never played drums, though he was talented with string instruments, I think. His father was a professional musician and musical theorist, too.


4. What does Langford's Galileo, Science and the Church, on page 17, say Galileo invented at age twenty-two?
The hand calculator, clumsy but effective.


5. Einstein and Infeld, The Evolution of Physics on page 36, discussing the problem of ambiguous measurements from people of different temperament, mention a solution: "an instrument designed in a primitive form by Galileo. Here again that familiar name!" Which instrument?
Telescope. The name was coined by a cardinal or less religious leader.


6. What famous artist died in the year that Galileo was born?
Michaelangelo.


7. What famous scientist was born in the year that Galileo died? Fritz Zwicky, or was it Newton?


8. In Giorgio de Santillana's The Crime of Galileo, on page 2, what does it say Galileo discovered at age nineteen?
Euclid?


9. Arthur Koestler's The Sleepwalkers, on page 471, mentions that Galileo dedicated his The Assayer (Il Saggiatore) to Cardinal Maffeo Barberini, who wrote an ode in honor of Galileo. Still, the opinions of Barberini were a strong influence when Pope Urban VIII placed Galileo under house arrest. Why?
I think this was the Cardinal that was sent to Spain or elsewhere at the time of the trial period, so his influence then was rather small. However, I think it was at his house in 1616 that Galileo was instructed not to hold to the Copernican model, but he was not officially told he could not address it (as in a hypothetical case). Barberini also gave a letter stating that Galileo was not guilty of any wrong doing at that time to allieve Galileo of the negative comments that were arising against him.

At the time of the trial itself, Galileo had evidence that he was not guilty of wrong doing since he had not signed the document the Inquisitioners had taken to Barberini's house since Barberini got rid of those dudes before they could squeeze it out of Galileo.


10. In which sector of the moon is the crater Galileo? (N, NE, E, SE, etc.)
North

hhEb09'1
2009-Jan-19, 04:10 PM
Thanks, George! When I saw that yours was the only response in over an hour, I thought, boy, this one is going to be over quickly.

Current Scores:
3 George

Eroica
2009-Jan-19, 04:29 PM
1: 31
2: 13
3: Equivalence of infinities
4: The hydrostatic balance
5: Thermometer
6: Michelangelo
7: Newton
8: The isochronism of the pendulum
9: Berberini was Pope Urban VIII
10: NW

George
2009-Jan-19, 04:43 PM
Your promotion of it on another thread worked.

hhEb09'1
2009-Jan-19, 04:52 PM
Yikes

Current Scores
7 Eroica
3 George

George
2009-Jan-19, 05:30 PM
Still, the opinions of Barberini were a strong influence when Pope Urban VIII placed Galileo under house arrest. Why? Darn, as Eroica stated, he was the Pope! It was Cardinal Bellarmine I was thinking about and I seem to always get the two mixed-up. They were both "B"s. I think Galileo taught Barberini's cousin, too.

It is still a bit of a mystery as to why the Pope slammed him, including humilating him with a public recant. Yes, the "Dialogue" was derogatory with its heavy inference that the dummy was the Pope, but the two of them had been genuine friends. Further, the Italian Inquisition was wimpy compared to the aggressive Spanish Inquisition and they were not shy with criticizing Rome and the Pope, apparently. The counter reformation political factors had to weigh heavily in this decision against Galileo. Then there were a few Jesuit (true scholars, actually) that were more than annoyed with Galileo's arguments against one of their own (Schiener?)regarding who was first with the Sunspots. [Neither one of these guys, to my knowledge, ever bothered to mention the Sun's color, so I still want to know who to blame on that one! :)]

George
2009-Jan-19, 09:00 PM
1: 31
2: 13
3: Equivalence of infinities
4: The hydrostatic balance
5: Thermometer
6: Michelangelo
7: Newton
8: The isochronism of the pendulum
9: Berberini was Pope Urban VIII
10: NW

Bouncing off Eroica, with some variation since somehow I got one more right than I should have. :doh:

1) 31
2) 13
3) Percussion
4) Hydrostatic balance
5) Pendulum
6) Michelangelo
7) Newton
8) The isochronism of the pendulum
9) He was the Pope
10) WNW (10N, 63W)

hhEb09'1
2009-Jan-20, 12:26 AM
I did not put this up as a sticky, as much good as it's done. O well, I have an ace under my sleeve.

Current Scores:

8 George
7 Eroica

George
2009-Jan-20, 12:59 AM
1) 7 weeks ago or 45 ahead for the quadricentennial week
2) 13
3) Percussion
4) Hydrostatic balance
5) Pendulum
6) Michelangelo
7) Newton
8) The isochronism of the pendulum
9) He was the Pope
10) WNW (10N, 63W)

Eroica
2009-Jan-20, 11:32 AM
1: 31
2: 0
3: Equivalence of infinities
4: The hydrostatic balance
5: Thermometer
6: Michelangelo
7: Newton
8: The isochronism of the pendulum
9: Berberini was Pope Urban VIII
10: W

hhEb09'1
2009-Jan-20, 12:51 PM
Ah, my ace just slipped. Now, I don't know how to answer question one, so I'm throwing it out. Sorry. I meant to fold in the issue of the difference between old/new style calendars and the sidereal/tropical year definitions, but now I'm not even certain of the date. Guess I should have been more specific. Everybody gets credit for #1.

Everybody meaning you two :)

Maybe I'll try a Challenge 6 supplement at a more propitious time.

Current scores:

9 George
8 Eroica

hhEb09'1
2009-Jan-20, 12:56 PM
2: 0OFCOL :)

I give up.

Current Scores:

9 Eroica
8 George

Arneb
2009-Jan-20, 02:02 PM
So, with one question thrown out, does that mean it's over?

hhEb09'1
2009-Jan-20, 02:05 PM
Everybody gets credit for #1.
:)

Arneb
2009-Jan-20, 02:27 PM
:whistle:

Eroica
2009-Jan-20, 02:34 PM
1:
2: 0
3: Equivalence of infinities
4: The hydrostatic balance
5: Thermometer
6: Michelangelo
7: Newton
8: The isochronism of the pendulum
9: Berberini was Pope Urban VIII
10: WNW


I'm sticking with "equivalence of infinities" for #3 as I have found mention of the other choices (including "percussion") in The Dialogue (http://oll.libertyfund.org/index.php?option=com_staticxt&staticfile=show.php%3Ftitle=753&layout=html).

George
2009-Jan-20, 05:02 PM
Ah, my ace just slipped. Now, I don't know how to answer question one, so I'm throwing it out. Sorry. I meant to fold in the issue of the difference between old/new style calendars and the sidereal/tropical year definitions, but now I'm not even certain of the date. Guess I should have been more specific. Everybody gets credit for #1.
Stillman Drake presents some strong arguments that favor December 1st, or a day or two around then, as Galileo's first observations, which were of the Moon. He used January observations, however, in his publication.

[I didn't think of the possibility of date changes till last night.]


Everybody meaning you two :)
It is tough to get participants when you have such an intimidating duo going at it. ;)

George
2009-Jan-20, 05:03 PM
:whistle: Is that your final answer? :whistle:

ngc3314
2009-Jan-20, 05:35 PM
"c" ; he never played drums, though he was talented with string instruments, I think. His father was a professional musician and musical theorist, too.


Indeed, you can hear one of Vincenzo Galilei's compositions pretty easily. In Respighi's settings of "Ancient Airs and Dances for Lute" (for my money one of the most ethereal things in all Western music, not at all like his tone poems), the second movement of the first suite - Gagliarda - was composed by the elder Galilei. I sometimes use that in classes to set the stage for Galileo's career. Say, that lecture comes up today...

Arneb
2009-Jan-20, 06:06 PM
Is that your final answer? :whistle:

I am afraid so, yes. There is an intimidating duo at work here...

hhEb09'1
2009-Jan-20, 06:13 PM
Well, we've made it past the inauguration at least.

Current Scores:

9 Eroica
8 George
0 Arneb

George
2009-Jan-20, 08:11 PM
Indeed, you can hear one of Vincenzo Galilei's compositions pretty easily. In Respighi's settings of "Ancient Airs and Dances for Lute" (for my money one of the most ethereal things in all Western music, not at all like his tone poems), the second movement of the first suite - Gagliarda - was composed by the elder Galilei. I sometimes use that in classes to set the stage for Galileo's career. Say, that lecture comes up today...
Thanks, that is a nice suite, and it's a great background for any Galileo presentation.

I'd would enjoy seeing your lecture, too.

Here's (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NxeuASRBTF8&feature=related) that 2nd movement, I think.

Somehow my score dropped, so maybe I'll get extra credit for the suite.

Arneb
2009-Jan-20, 08:54 PM
Current Scores:
[...]
0 Arneb

Please don't do that! :eek: There is a difference between not participating in the contest and totally tanking. I prefer the former, at the moment.

George
2009-Jan-20, 10:14 PM
There should be quite of few in this game, but for some reason, they ain't here. Your name is a full 50% improvement to the number of active players, and that's hard to discount. Heck, even sock puppets might be welcome for once. ;) I really like the topic as Galileo's story is a dandy.

Eroica
2009-Jan-21, 10:46 AM
1:
2: 0
3: Percussion
4: The hydrostatic balance
5: Thermometer
6: Michelangelo
7: Newton
8: The isochronism of the pendulum
9: Berberini was Pope Urban VIII
10: WNW


OK, apparently Galileo intended to deal with percussion but had to abandon it for one reason or another.

hhEb09'1
2009-Jan-21, 12:05 PM
1:
2: 0
3: Percussion
4: The hydrostatic balance
5: Thermometer
6: Michelangelo
7: Newton
8: The isochronism of the pendulum
9: Berberini was Pope Urban VIII
10: WNWThese answers, I declare, are the winner. Thanks for sticking with it Eroica, my brain hurts. :)


OK, apparently Galileo intended to deal with percussion but had to abandon it for one reason or another.Yes, it was the fifth chapter, but it doesn't seem to have made it to the publisher. The other subjects from question 3 appear on these pages of my Dover reprint of the Crew and de Salvio translation: a) Nature abhors a vacuum (p.13), b) Terminal velocity (p.94), d) Equivalence of infinities (p.31), and e) Musical fifths (p.107).

I've already explained away question 1 above. It looks like you found my intended answer (13) to question 2, and so I was amazed when you changed your answer to zero. Of course, the IYA website had revamped the node addresses completely, the day I started the quiz. Yikes, bad timing. I had to revise my scores. Sorry to do that to you, George.

For question 10, I was looking for W, but I accepted George's more specific WNW (10N, 63W) (Plugging the two values (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galilaei_(lunar_crater)) (10.5N, 62.7W) into the first azimuth calculator I found on the internet (http://www.movable-type.co.uk/scripts/latlong.html), it looks like the bearing is 281°22′31″, which is just a little more WNW than W, the "boundary" being 281°15′00″! I guess that would make it very close to WWNW?). I have moon maps where it is shown as East, because of the reversal from the Earth.

The sad situation of the Galileo memorial on the moon is explained at that wiki page:
Despite being the first person to publish astronomical observations of the Moon with a telescope, Galileo Galilei is honored only with this unremarkable formation.

Initially, the name Galilaeus had been applied by Giovanni Battista Riccioli, an Italian Jesuit who produced one of the first detailed maps of the Moon in 1651, to a large and bright nearby albedo feature (now known as Reiner Gamma). The name was transferred to its present location by Johann Heinrich Mädler in his influential Mappa Selenographica, published in collaboration with Wilhelm Beer in four parts between 1834 and 1836. Mädler's motive for this change was the fact that his lunar map did not name albedo features, forcing him to transfer Gallileo's name to an insignificant nearby crater.

Anyway, good job, guys. I'll try to do better next time. :)

Eroica
2009-Jan-21, 12:28 PM
Thank you for the quiz, and for the reminder - I must try and read some of Galileo's works this year. :clap:

It would be an interesting exercise to try and solve question 1. I just added 400 tropical years to 25 August 1609 (Wikipedia's date for Galileo's demonstration of the telescope to Venetian lawmakers) and arrived at 25 August 2009.

George
2009-Jan-21, 02:44 PM
Yes, it was the fifth chapter, but it doesn't seem to have made it to the publisher. The other subjects from question 3 appear on these pages of my Dover reprint of the Crew and de Salvio translation: a) Nature abhors a vacuum (p.13), b) Terminal velocity (p.94), d) Equivalence of infinities (p.31), and e) Musical fifths (p.107). I told y'all he didn't play drums. :razz:


I've already explained away question 1 above. It looks like you found my intended answer (13) to question 2, and so I was amazed when you changed your answer to zero. Of course, the IYA website had revamped the node addresses completely, the day I started the quiz. Yikes, bad timing. I had to revise my scores. Sorry to do that to you, George.
A quiz with dynamical changing answers; now that's original! :eek:


For question 10, I was looking for W, but I accepted George's more specific WNW (10N, 63W) (Plugging the two values (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galilaei_(lunar_crater)) (10.5N, 62.7W) into the first azimuth calculator I found on the internet (http://www.movable-type.co.uk/scripts/latlong.html), it looks like the bearing is 281°22′31″, which is just a little more WNW than W, the "boundary" being 281°15′00″! I guess that would make it very close to WWNW?). FWIW, without doing the math, I did consider this as a 10 x 63 vector, and WNW seemed appropriate.

I have moon maps where it is shown as East, because of the reversal from the Earth. So WNE would have been ok, too? ;)


The sad situation of the Galileo memorial on the moon is explained at that wiki page: That is an interesting story. Today, we tend to think the more complex revelations did the most damage to the Aristotle/Ptolemy/Thomist model, but we underestimate their strong teleological mindset. The news that the Moon was not perfect, according to at least one author (who's name I can't recall), had the greater impact and more than the Medician Moon discovery or Sunspot discovery. Of course, the crescent and gibbous phases of Venus cinched it for the Jesuit scholars and they quickly dropped the Ptolemy model, and went with .... Tycho's Geocentric model. :) Galileo deserves Tycho's spot, IMO.


Anyway, good job, guys. I'll try to do better next time. :)
Thanks hh, it was fun and interesting. Congrats [B]Eroica.

hhEb09'1
2009-Jan-23, 02:11 PM
Thank you for the quiz, and for the reminder - I must try and read some of Galileo's works this year. :clap:You're welcome. I recommend his Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences-- as question 4 shows, it ranges over topics not often associated with Galileo.



A quiz with dynamical changing answers; now that's original! :eek:I was stunned. :)

FWIW, without doing the math, I did consider this as a 10 x 63 vector, and WNW seemed appropriate.Using 10 and 63, instead, is enough to bump it down to the W sector!

So WNE would have been ok, too? ;)
There is no WNE when boxing the compass (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boxing_the_compass):)



Thanks hh, it was fun and interesting. Congrats Eroica.Next year! or the next after that...

George
2009-Jan-23, 03:27 PM
Using 10 and 63, instead, is enough to bump it down to the W sector! Ooh, you're right. Glad I didn't do the math. :)


There is no WNE when boxing the compass (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boxing_the_compass):) There is if you hit the box hard enough. ;)