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EDG
2009-Dec-22, 08:04 AM
What's the closest star to Sol that is at least 15 solar masses (I'm looking for the closest star that is or was an O V star - it doesn't matter if it still is on the main sequence or if it's a supergiant, but it has to still be over 15 solar masses and black holes don't count).

Alternatively, does anyone know of a list of the most massive stars listed in order of distance from Sol? I know of this list: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_most_massive_stars but that only lists them in order of mass.

I know Betelgeuse is 640 ly from Sol, and Antares is about 600 ly from Sol. Canopus is 310 ly from Sol, but isn't massive enough to be of use to me here (it only has about 8.5 solar masses). I can't think of any that are closer...

ngc3314
2009-Dec-22, 03:16 PM
Gamma Velorum (Suhail) is a WR/O7 binary whose primary (according to Wikipedia...) used to be up to 40 solar masses before mass loss set in. D=250 pc or so.

EDG
2009-Dec-22, 05:07 PM
Thanks, but Gamma Velorum is 800-1200 lightyears away (depending on which distance measurement you believe), much further than Betelgeuse or Antares. Though it's an interesting system.

schlaugh
2009-Dec-22, 05:09 PM
You might try this list of the 300 brightest stars nearest to Earth. Includes spectrum and distance, plus much more.

http://www.atlasoftheuniverse.com/stars.html

chornedsnorkack
2009-Dec-22, 05:15 PM
You might try this list of the 300 brightest stars nearest to Earth. Includes spectrum and distance, plus much more.

http://www.atlasoftheuniverse.com/stars.html

Not within 300 ly, but 300 brightest stars.

The closest O here is Zeta Ophiuchi as O9,5V, at 460 lightyears.

George
2009-Dec-22, 05:22 PM
You might try the Hipparcos catalog generator (http://www.rssd.esa.int/index.php?project=HIPPARCOS&page=multisearch2). I used the parallax parameter. The far right-hand column gives stellar class.

Jeff Root
2009-Dec-22, 06:51 PM
Is there a semi-reliable estimate of the total number of O-type stars in the
entire Milky Way galaxy at this time? Knowing that would help to refine the
limits of the OP's search, and give a better picture of the distribution of
star masses in general.

-- Jeff, in Minneapolis

schlaugh
2009-Dec-22, 07:36 PM
Not within 300 ly, but 300 brightest stars.

The closest O here is Zeta Ophiuchi as O9,5V, at 460 lightyears.

Yes, caught my mistake and edited the post. But not fast enough! :)

Interesting that the Vbulletin quote function seems to have picked up my edit and reflected in your post. Would have thought that a quote would be frozen. maybe not.

Jeff Root
2009-Dec-22, 11:39 PM
I sometimes read a post, decide to reply to a particular statement, quote
the post, and then can't find the statement in the quote because the poster
edited it before I hit the quote button.

-- Jeff, in Minneapolis

EDG
2009-Dec-23, 02:32 AM
The closest O here is Zeta Ophiuchi as O9,5V, at 460 lightyears.

Cool, that's closer that Betelgeuse and Antares, and is actually an O V as well (as opposed to a supergiant).

schlaugh
2009-Dec-23, 06:10 AM
I sometimes read a post, decide to reply to a particular statement, quote
the post, and then can't find the statement in the quote because the poster
edited it before I hit the quote button.

-- Jeff, in Minneapolis
Ah, a timing mismatch makes more sense. Occam strikes again.

George
2009-Dec-23, 02:26 PM
Not that I'm doing it right but the Hipparcos catalog shows these O-class stars:

HIP 107864 at ~ 339 lyrs.
HIP 19218 at ~ 415 lyrs.
HIP 40047 at ~ 420 lyrs.

[These are listed at about 10 in V mag., so they may be obscured somewhat, I suppose.]

chornedsnorkack
2009-Dec-23, 04:03 PM
Not that I'm doing it right but the Hipparcos catalog shows these O-class stars:

HIP 107864 at ~ 339 lyrs.
HIP 19218 at ~ 415 lyrs.
HIP 40047 at ~ 420 lyrs.

[These are listed at about 10 in V mag., so they may be obscured somewhat, I suppose.]

It seems that they are white dwarfs rather than main sequence stars, so genuinely dim because small in size.

George
2009-Dec-23, 05:50 PM
It seems that they are white dwarfs rather than main sequence stars, so genuinely dim because small in size. Well, that would explain it. I guess the similarity in surface temperature throws-off their spectral classification. [They do have 3 or 4 white dwarf classifications used in the catalog, at least according to their manual.]

[I would assume that some O-class stars would be dim due to their progenitor GMC.]

JohnBStone
2010-Jan-02, 03:10 PM
Cool, that's closer that Betelgeuse and Antares, and is actually an O V as well (as opposed to a supergiant).
It has the benefit of being in Celestia too, so you can visit before you buy ;-)

Celestia can give a rough list of size order too as you can view closest 500 or brightest 500 stars in the star browser and order the list on the abs magnitude or stellar type columns.

EDG
2010-Mar-27, 04:58 PM
So the general consensus is that Zeta Ophiuchi is the closest star of the type I'm looking for? Nobody can think of any closer ones?

And yeah, I've tried the Celestia approach, it's definitely very useful, but doesn't quite reach out that far :).

grant hutchison
2010-Mar-27, 07:29 PM
Celestia's database contains several O stars closer than Zet Oph, but none that are convincing: they all have very low radii calculated from their assigned spectral class, apparent magnitude and parallax, suggesting that there's something wrong with either the spectrum or the parallax.

Grant Hutchison

EDG
2010-Mar-27, 07:42 PM
Yeah I think those would include the ones that George mentioned earlier. OK, is Zeta Oph the closest confirmed OV star to Sol? ;)

Hungry4info
2010-Mar-27, 09:38 PM
Why not just use SIMBAD's search querey?
http://simbad.u-strasbg.fr/simbad/

Search by Criteria (substitute your own numbers for #)

(sptypes = 'O#') & (plx > #)
(Search all O#-type stars with a trigonometric parallax greater than # ľas).

You'll get the known stars of various classes of O within the distance specified. Zet Oph has a parallax of ~7.12 ľas.


Celestia's database contains several O stars closer than Zet Oph, but none that are convincing: they all have very low radii calculated from their assigned spectral class, apparent magnitude and parallax, suggesting that there's something wrong with either the spectrum or the parallax.
Or they're sdO stars.

I find Zeta Orionis to be closer than Zeta Ophiuchi.

Jeff Root
2010-Mar-27, 10:02 PM
What's with the fondness for Zetas???

-- Jeff, in Minnezetapolis

grant hutchison
2010-Mar-27, 10:43 PM
Or they're sdO stars.That would be a surprise. :) But some have main sequence designations, and the others seem to have rather low derived MV for hot subdwarfs.


I find Zeta Orionis to be closer than Zeta Ophiuchi.Simbad gives Zet Oph a larger parallax than Zet Ori. What distance do you have for Zet Ori?

Grant Hutchison

EDG
2010-Mar-27, 11:10 PM
Why not just use SIMBAD's search querey?
http://simbad.u-strasbg.fr/simbad/

Search by Criteria (substitute your own numbers for #)

(sptypes = 'O#') & (plx > #)
(Search all O#-type stars with a trigonometric parallax greater than # ľas).

You'll get the known stars of various classes of O within the distance specified. Zet Oph has a parallax of ~7.12 ľas.


Not sure what I'm doing wrong, but I just get a blank page. It says it's found 28 objects if I say
(sptypes = 'O') & (plx > 1) but isn't showing me what they are.

grant hutchison
2010-Mar-28, 12:04 AM
Check the right side of the screen, under "Return". I'm guessing you left this set to "object count" rather than "display ... objects".

Grant Hutchison

George
2010-Mar-28, 03:47 AM
Why not just use SIMBAD's search querey?
http://simbad.u-strasbg.fr/simbad/ Nice place to know about.

I found these. Last column is lightyears. I did not find mass.

O9.........HD 37742......148
O8.........HIP 19218.....408
O9V.......HIP 81377.....459
O5pv......HIP 40047.....408
B0IVpe....HIP 4427......615
B0Ve...... HIP 12469.....582
B0..........HIP 74368.....217
B0Vp...... HIP 52419.....441

Hungry4info
2010-Mar-28, 03:53 AM
Simbad gives Zet Oph a larger parallax than Zet Ori. What distance do you have for Zet Ori?
Hmm. I was using this (http://simbad.u-strasbg.fr/simbad/sim-id?Ident=HR%201948) Zeta Ori (HD 37742), while searching Zet Ori itself gives the one you found (HD 37742J).

I'm guessing it's a system with multiple components. It doesn't seem clear which star is where.

Also if I recall, Celestia either doesn't yet incorporate sd spectral types, or does but not in the official released version yet.

grant hutchison
2010-Mar-28, 01:03 PM
Also if I recall, Celestia either doesn't yet incorporate sd spectral types, or does but not in the official released version yet.They're in the dataset, and therefore searchable within stars.txt. Celestia 1.6.0 also parses and displays them appropriately, assigning a luminosity class of "VI" to cool subdwarfs, and an "sd" prefix to hot subdwarfs.

Grant Hutchison

Messier Tidy Upper
2010-Mar-28, 01:48 PM
Have you checked out James Kaler's stars website* he lists stars by spectral class & covers all constellations and both hemispheres.

See http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~kaler/sow/sowlist.html & http://stars.astro.illinois.edu/sow/class.html

Two of the three stars in Orion's belt (Mintaka or Delta Orionis & Alnitak or Zeta Orionis) are 09.5 spectral class & Zeta Puppis or Naos would be another strong contender for closest O-type star IMHON.

Naos is 1,400 ly distant and has 60 x our Sun's mass with apsectral type of O5 Ia. The second link has more examples.

But Alpha Crucis (Acrux) has at least one star of 14 solar masses & is 350 or so light years away.

* This had disappeared but thankfully now seems to have returned.

Messier Tidy Upper
2010-Mar-28, 02:11 PM
I compiled this listing a while ago which may also be of interest for you - wrong spectral class -type B not type O but some of these may well be massive enough to have started life as O type stars and to exceed about the 8-10 solar mass mark although there is alarge mass range here :

***
Closest B type stars :

Compiled from sources listed by Steven C. Raine

Kaler’s stars arranged by spectral class:

http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~jkaler/sow/class.html

1) Regulus (Alpha Leonis) = 77 ly, B7 dwarf plus three companions – white dwarf & orange & red dwarf binary. Kaler’s link (Kl) :

http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~jkaler/sow/regulus.html

2) Algorab (Delta Corvi) = 88 ly (!) B9.5, post T-Tauri phase star!,

Kl :

http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~jkaler/sow/algorab.html

3) Algol (Beta Persei) = 93 light years!, B8 & subgiant G5-K2 binary,

Kl : http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~jkaler/sow/algol.html

4) Alpheratz (Alpha Andromedae) = 97 light years away, B8 subgiant –

Kaler’s link : http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~jkaler/sow/alpheratz.html

5) Alcaid / Benetnasch (Eta Ursae Majoris) = 100 (almost exactly?) ly, B3 V,

Kl : http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~jkaler/sow/alkaid.html 101 ly by Collins. 228 by Motz & Nathanson

6) Alnair (Alpha Gruis) = 101 ly, B? subgiant. Formerly wrongly thought to be the closest B type at 57 ly later refined to current 100 ly measure.

Kaler’s link : http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~jkaler/sow/alnair.html

7) Al Thalimain Prior (Lambda Aquilae) = 125 ly, B9 V,

KL : http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~jkaler/sow/althalimainpr.html

8) Markab (Alpha Pegasi) = 140 ly, B9 dwarf or giant,

Kl : http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~jkaler/sow/markab.html

9) Achernar (Alpha Eridani) = 144 ly, B3 dwarf. Ninth brightest star & brightest B type dwarf plus hottest of apparent mag. Top 10 stars.

Kaler’s link : http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~jkaler/sow/achernar.html

10) Gamma Coronae Borealis = 145 ly, B9 V,

Kl : http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~jkaler/sow/gammacrb.html

11) Beta –1 Tucanae = 151 ly, B9 multiple star & v. young,

Kl : http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~jkaler/sow/betatuc.html

12) Zubeneschmali (Beta Librae) = 160 ly, B8 dwarf, Green?!

Kl : http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~jkaler/sow/zubenes.html

13) 41 Arietis = 160 ly, B8 V,

Kl : http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~jkaler/sow/41ari.html

14) Rukbat (Alpha Sagittari) = 170 ly, B8 dwarf - & secular variable?

Kl : http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~jkaler/sow/rukbat.html

15) Gomeisa? (Beta Canis Minoris) = 170 ly, B8 dwarf(?)

KL : http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~jkaler/sow/gomeisa.html (CHECK!!!)

16) Peacock (Alpha Pavonis) 180- ly, B2 Dwarf-subgiant

KL : http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~jkaler/sow/peacock.html

17) Eta Aquarrii = 185 ly, B9

Kl : http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~jkaler/sow/etaaqr.html

18) Mesarthim (Gamma Arietis) 204 ly, B9 & B9 /A1 dwarf / subgiant,

Kl : http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~jkaler/sow/mesarthim.html

19) Homam (Zeta Pegasi) = 209 ly, B8 dwarf –Subgiant,

Kl : http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~jkaler/sow/homam.html

20) Haedus II (Eta Aurigae) = 220 ly, B3

Kl : http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~jkaler/sow/haedus2.html

21) Xi Tauri = 222 ly, B9, B9, B8 & F5.

KL : http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~jkaler/sow/xitau.html

22) Nunki (Sigma Sagittarii) = B2.5 dwarf, 225 ly

KL : http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~jkaler/sow/nunki.html

22) Alpha Arae = 240 ly, B2 dwarf,

KL : http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~jkaler/sow/alphaara.html

23) Bellatrix (Gamma Orionis) = 240 ly, B2,

KL: http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~jkaler/sow/bellatrix.html

24) Iota Leporis = 240 ly, B8,

Kl : http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~jkaler/sow/iotalep.html

25) Alpha Telescopii = 250 ly, B3 dwarf-subgiant,

Kl : http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~jkaler/sow/alphatel.html

26) Spica = 260 ly, B1 & B4 V,

Kl : http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~jkaler/sow/spica.html

27) Zeta Pheonicis = B6 & B8 , 280 ly, Collins guide P.206

Kl : http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~jkaler/sow/zetaphe.html also Achernar’s “bridge”

28) Alpha Muscae = 305 ly, B2 V-IV,

KL : http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~jkaler/sow/alphamus.html

29) Eta Centauri = 310 ly, B1.5 dwarf, KL :

http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~jkaler/sow/etacen.html

30) Seat (Pi Aquarii) = 338 ly, B1, KL :

http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~jkaler/sow/seat.html

Other sources :

Motz, Lloyd & Nathanson, Carol, Constellations, Aurum Press, 1991.
Ridpath, Ian & Tirion, Wil, Collins Guide to Stars & Planets, Collins, 2007 & 1988.

Messier Tidy Upper
2010-Mar-28, 02:28 PM
Plus, again, this may not be exactly what your looking for but it just might also be of help too :

First magnitude stars – the top 30 :

Distance sphere Brightest star

Within 5 light years – Alpha Centauri

Alpha Centauri G2 & K1 & M5 V, 1.7 times as bright as Sun. 4.4 ly

Within 10 light years – Sirius

Sirius A1 V & white dwarf, 26 times as bright as Sun. 8.7 ly

Within 20 light years – Sirius (still) then Altair & Procyon :

Procyon F5 V-IV, 7 times as bright as Sun. 11.4 ly
Altair A7 V, 10.6 times as bright as Sun. 17 ly

Within 30 light years – Vega

Fomalhaut A3 V, 16 times as bright as Sun. 25 ly
Vega A0 V, 54 times as bright as Sun. 25 ly

Within 50 light years – Arcturus

Pollux K0 III, 45 - 60 times as bright as Sun. (Figures differ.) 34 ly
Arcturus K1 III, 113 times as bright as Sun but 216 times incl. infra-red! 37 ly
Capella G0 & G8 III, 82 and 51 times as bright as Sun respectively. 43 ly

Within 100 light years – Gamma Crucis

Castor A1, A7 & A type x 2 & M type x 2, 25 (?) times sun’s luminosity. 52 ly
Aldebaran K5 III, 120 times as bright as Sun. 65 ly
Regulus B7 V, 130 times as bright as Sun. 77 ly
GaCrux M3 III, 1500 times as bright as Sun. 88 ly

Within 200 light years – Achernar

Alnair B5, 380 times as bright as Sun. 101 ly
Miaplacidus A2 IV, 210 times as bright as Sun. 111 ly
El Nath B7 IV, 400 or 700 times as bright as Sun. 131 ly.
Achernar B5 V-III, 400 or 2000 (incl. UV) times as bright as Sun. 144 ly

Within 500 light years – Mimosa (Beta Crucis)

Bellatrix (Gamma Orionis) B2 III, 6,400 times as bright as Sun. 243 ly.
Spica B1 & B4, 13,000 times as bright as Sun. 262 ly
Canopus F0 Ib, 14,800 times as bright as Sun. 313 ly
Acrux B0 IV & B1 V, 25,000 & 16,000 times as bright as Sun. 320 ly
Hadar / Agena (Beta Centauri) B1 & B2, 15,500 times as bright as Sun. 350 ly
Mimosa (Beta Crucis) B0 IV, 3,000 or 34,000 times as bright as Sun. 352 ly
Shaula (Lambda Sco.) B1, B2 & protostar, 5,000 times as bright as Sun. 365 ly
Adhara (Epsilon Canis Majoris) B2 II, 3,700 times as bright as Sun. 425 ly
Betelgeux M1 Iab, 55,000 times as bright as Sun. 430 ly

Within 1000 light years – Rigel or Antares (figures differ…)

Antares M1 1b & B3 V 60,000 times as bright as Sun. 620 ly
Rigel B8 Iab & B9 V x2, 60-40,000 times as bright as Sun. 775 ly

Beyond 1000 light years & Galaxy –wide – Eta Carinae(?)

Alnilam (Epsilon Orionis), B0 Iab, 375,000 times as bright as Sun. 1,300 ly
Deneb A2 Ia, 160,000 times as bright as Sun. 1,500 ly

(Past top 20 star)
Eta Carinae B? hypergiant, 5 million times as bright as Sun. 8,000 ly


The Top 30 stellar luminaries in order of distance :
No. Star name Bayer rank Distance Brightness rank* Nature

1. Toliman** Alpha Centauri 4.4 ly 3 Yellow dwarf binary
2. Sirius Alpha Canis Majoris 8.7 ly 1 A type dwarf
3. Procyon Alpha Canis Minoris 11.5 ly 8 F dwarf or subgiant
4. Altair Alpha Aquilae 17 ly 12 A type or Sirian dwarf
5. Fomalhaut Alpha Piscies Austrinus 25 ly 18 A type or Sirian dwarf
6. Vega Alpha Lyrae 25.3 ly 5 A type or Sirian dwarf
7. Pollux Beta Geminorum 34 ly 17 Orange Giant
8. Arcturus Alpha Bootis 37 ly 4 Orange Giant
9. Capella Alpha Aurigae 43 ly 6 Yellow giant binary
10. Castor Alpha Geminorum 50 ly 23 Multiple Sirian A stars
11. Aldebaran Alpha Tauri 65 ly 15 Orange Giant
12. Regulus Alpha Leonis 77 ly 21 B type blue dwarf
13. GaCrux Gamma Crucis 88 ly 24 Red giant
14. Alnair Alpha Gruis 101 ly 30 B type blue dwarf / sub-giant
15. Miaplacidus Beta Carinae 111 ly 28 Sirian sub-giant
16. El Nath Beta Tauri 131 ly 27 Be type shell star
17. Achernar Alpha Eridani 144 ly 9 B type blue dwarf or giant
18. Bellatrix Gamma Orionis 243 ly 26 B type blue giant
19. Spica Alpha Virginis 260 ly 16 Blue giant binary
20. Canopus Alpha Carinae 313 ly 2 Yellow-White Supergiant
21. Acrux Alpha Crucis 320 ly 13 Multiple blue giants
22. Mimosa Beta Crucis 350 ly 20 Blue giant variable
23. Hadar+ Beta Centauri 350 ly 11 Triple : 2 B giants, 1 B dwarf
24. Shaula Lambda Scorpii 360 ly 25 Binary blue dwarfs or giants
25. Adhara Epsilon Canis Majoris 430 ly 22 Blue giant, brightest star in UV
26. Betelgeux Alpha Orionis 430*** ly 10 Red supergiant
27. Antares Alpha Scorpii 604 ly 14 Red supergiant
28. Rigel Beta Orionis 700 - 900 ly 7 Blue supergiant
29. Alnilam Epsilon Orionis 1,300 ly 29 Blue supergiant
30. Deneb Alpha Cygni 1,500 – 3,200 ly 19 White Supergiant

* Brightness ranks or position based on apparent magnitude - note some stars have equal or variable magnitudes. Some stars are also located at equal or approximately equal distances while other distances are uncertain.

** Also sometimes called Rigil Kentaurus or Bungula but mostly known by its Bayer or Greek letter designation.

*** Now thought to be twice that distance ie. also around 600 ly disant by later figures.

+ Also called Agena but most commonly referred to by its Greek letter or Bayer designation.

References :

Croswell, Ken, “The Blue Witch” p. 22 in ‘Sky & Telescope’ magazine May-June 2007.
Kaler, James B., ‘Extreme Stars’, Cambridge University Press, 2001.
Kaler, James B., Stars, W.H. Freeman, 1992.
Kaler, James B., ’The Hundred Greatest Stars’, Copernicus books, 2002.
Moore, Patrick, ‘Astronomers’ Stars’, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1987.
Moore, Patrick, ‘Atlas of the Universe’, Phillips, 1994.
Moore, Patrick, ‘Brilliant Stars’, David Bateman Ltd, 1996.
Motz, Lloyd & Nathanson, Carol, Constellations, Aurum Press, 1991.
Ridpath, Ian & Tirion, Wil, Collins Guide to Stars & Planets, Collins, 2007 & 1988.
Schaaf, Fred, ‘The Brightest Stars’, Wiley, 2008.

If you can get hold of any of those sources they're pretty informative & handy in this context too.

EDG
2010-Mar-28, 04:17 PM
Thanks for that - I've been checking out Kaler's pages already. I should note that the links you've provided in your big post are all wrong though - the URLs are now in this sort of format:
http://stars.astro.illinois.edu/sow/regulus.html

Acrux is actually a closer star for my purposes (I need solo stars with mass of 15.5+ solar masses, or close binary B stars with combined mass of 15.5+, and Acrux is the latter). Thanks!

Messier Tidy Upper
2010-May-07, 03:05 PM
Okay - didn't know about the links via Kaler's site not working thanks for letting me know. No worries!

Astropa
2015-Feb-18, 08:52 PM
Closest star with more than 15 is prob Betalguse. My book says it's about 620ly distant and 20 solar masses. Closest O star on the main sequence is Naos akas zeta pupis, which is around 1100ly, so no O class within 1000lys. These are rare beasts in our area of the Galaxy

eburacum45
2015-Feb-20, 09:45 AM
What about Zeta Ophiuchi then?
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zeta_Ophiuchi

Parallax measurements give an estimated distance of roughly 366 light-years (112 parsecs) from the Earth.
This star is much closer than Naos, if the parallax isn't too messed up by the high proper motion.

Astropa
2015-Jul-14, 06:10 PM
Of course you are correct. With a mass of over 20 solar and a distance of between 400 and 500 light years it is unfortunate that zeta ophiuchi is surrounded by some much dust otherwise it would be easily in the top ten most brightest stars.

http://www.fromquarkstoquasars.com/apotd-zeta-ophiuchi

P