Results 1 to 2 of 2

Thread: What are Molecules?

  1. #1
    Join Date
    Jul 2003
    Posts
    27,902

    What are Molecules?

    Molecules are the basic buildings blocks of life and matter, and our understanding of them has evolved considerably over time.
    The post What are Molecules? appeared first on Universe Today.


    More...

  2. #2
    Join Date
    Sep 2005
    Location
    Metrowest, Boston
    Posts
    4,736
    Quote Originally Posted by Fraser View Post
    Molecules are the basic buildings blocks of life and matter, and our understanding of them has evolved considerably over time.
    The post What are Molecules? appeared first on Universe Today.


    More...
    Fraser. As a chemistry/physics teacher, dealing with molecules, atoms and subatomic particles comes second nature. one of the questions the kids usually ask, following the plunge to ever smaller scales of measurement, is the possible sub-structure of protons, neutrons and electrons. That'd be yep,yep, and nope....with quarks, gluons, chromodynamics, and no evidence for substructure of the electron...... they are point-like.

    In space, astronomers have used ever more sensitive spectroscopic tools to identify many of the compounds found in chem labs, and some of the precursors of life. But there is one thing being overlooked...the effects of gamma ray bursts, (GRB's) on the periphery of galaxies. In the galactic halos, clouds of gases are bombarded by GRB's. The energy of a gamma ray typically far exceeds the bond energy...i.e. molecular binding energy, (dissociation) or atomic binding energy, (ionization), or most importantly nuclear binding energy in a molecule (nuclear photodisintegration).
    Why is this important? Because the realization that GRB's were not isotropic events, spreading like bubbles through the intergalactic medium, but instead were highly beamed, with beaming factors approaching thousands, let Conservation of Energy Laws be retained in the phenomenology. That means that when we detect one here, in the solar system, it might not be bathing the rest of the Milky Way. With detection rates running to roughly a burst per day since BATSE went into orbit, the galaxy could be receiving overall, hundreds more.
    In the giant molecular clouds surrounding most galactic halos, we trace the common species of atomic and molecular hydrogen separately. The molecular hydrogen is inferred by the presence of entrained tracer gases like CO, or HCN, because their signals are easier to see and read, and the molecular hydrogen is then calculated for column density. Gamma rays attenuate that. Not so much as in dissociation or ionization, but in their nuclear photodisintegration. Nuclear binding energies typically run from ~5 Mev to ~10 Mev per nucleon. The hard spectrum of GRB's far exceeds that. The oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon atoms have their nuclei disintegrated, and the tracer gases disappear over time. Any atomic hydrogen left can slowly recombine exothermically into near invisible molecular hydrogen in the periphery of the galaxy, with zero tracer gases. That can leave a baryonic halo contributing to the galactic dynamics (non-Keplerian rotation curves) with scant evidence of it's existence (dark).
    In the bulge regions of the galaxy, the attenuated gamma rays would have insufficient energy to photodisintegrate the majority of the nuclei on the curve of binding energy, but they could still make an impact on one of the primordial species with it's low binding energy....lithium, and its relative abundance should stand out by it's diminution relative to hydrogen, deuterium, helium, and oxygen isotopes in Big Bang primordial nucleosynthesis models. pete

    SEE:https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikiped...otopes.svg.png

    SEE:http://www.algebralab.org/img/5ee9a9...7122e67f92.gif

    SEE:https://answersingenesis.org/astrono...thium-problem/

    GRB from Fermi-Lat, anything just above 10 exp 3 kev is Mev, and nuclear photodisintegration can occur SEE:http://www.personal.psu.edu/puv2/kepek/090510.png
    Last edited by trinitree88; 2016-Oct-25 at 12:42 PM. Reason: link, link, link,link

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
  •