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Thread: NASA's moon mission - ARTEMIS

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    NASA's moon mission - ARTEMIS

    As we will be getting more news on the ARTEMIS mission, thought it more logical to have its own thread.

    https://spacepolicyonline.com/news/m...-name-artemis/

    NASA has finally given a name to its program to return astronauts to the surface of the Moon by 2024 — Artemis. JFK had the Apollo program. In Greek mythology, Artemis was Apollo’s twin sister. The announcement came at the end of a media teleconference where NASA explained its $1.6 billion FY2020 supplemental budget request to make that a reality.


    The symbolism of the female name is obvious as White House and NASA officials constantly assert that the program will land the next man “and the first woman” on the lunar surface.
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    Fun factoid: a company named Artemis recently sponsored Mark Beaumont world-recordsetting bicycle ride around the world in 80 days, a title from Jules Verne, who also wrote a little something about a moon landing once. Okay, maybe not that fun.
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    Quote Originally Posted by slang View Post
    Fun factoid: a company named Artemis recently sponsored Mark Beaumont world-recordsetting bicycle ride around the world in 80 days, a title from Jules Verne, who also wrote a little something about a moon landing once. Okay, maybe not that fun.
    Do tell, I haven't heard of him.

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    Quote Originally Posted by selvaarchi View Post
    As we will be getting more news on the ARTEMIS mission, thought it more logical to have its own thread.

    https://spacepolicyonline.com/news/m...-name-artemis/
    I wish the endeavor God Speed Artemis.

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    even funnier factoid: some people living 100 years ago were so obsessed with hunting that they christened "Artemis" even MALE children...

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artemis_Fowl --> a fictional character, but you got the idea

    (i admit that I'm over-sensitive on this matter because my own name is a feminine one rushly turned to masculine - I'd prefer to have a name, like Peter or Dominic, that is 100% male )

    editrs571723_2105800-lpr.jpg
    Last edited by Barabino; 2019-May-19 at 07:40 PM.

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    Well, it may have taken nearly sixty years, but at least we're going with the more mythologically-logical name this time around.
    The greatest journey of all time, for all to see
    Every mission makes our dreams reality
    And our destiny begins with you and me
    Through all space and time, the achievement of mankind
    As we sail the sea of discovery, on heroes’ wings we fly!

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    Quote Originally Posted by Barabino View Post
    even funnier factoid: some people living 100 years ago were so obsessed with hunting that they christened "Artemis" even MALE children...

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artemis_Fowl --> a fictional character, but you got the idea

    (i admit that I'm over-sensitive on this matter because mi own name is a feminine one rushly turned to masculine - I'd prefer to have a name, like Peter or Dominic, that is 100% male )

    editrs571723_2105800-lpr.jpg
    Then why not change it legally?

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    after 47 years, i'm used to it, and moreover that would be a chore for my friends... forcing them to call me Peter B. (the original one, Peter M., died in a car accident 7 years ago )
    Last edited by Barabino; 2019-May-19 at 07:37 PM.

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    Sticker shock for Artemis has been hidden for now, but maybe we can have a betting pool on the preliminary cost. It will be huge. 37 launches....

    https://arstechnica.com/science/2019...lunar-outpost/
    There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjecture out of such a trifling investment of fact.
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    Explanation from Vox on what ARTEMIS is supposed to do.... but it does not look good to me. No money source, equipment not ready, no evidence that political will is there in the long term.

    https://www.vox.com/science-and-heal...tine-explained
    There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjecture out of such a trifling investment of fact.
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    There a lot of hurdles still in the execution of a boiler plate design. I wish them well in their task, but problems like they are having with the booster isn't helping and getting the lander program up to speed are a couple of issues.

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    "NASA unveils schedule for 'Artemis' 2024 Moon mission"

    http://www.moondaily.com/reports/NAS...ssion_999.html

    NASA on Thursday unveiled the calendar for the "Artemis" program that will return astronauts to the Moon for the first time in half a century, including eight scheduled launches and a mini-station in lunar orbit by 2024.

    The original lunar missions were named for Apollo -- Artemis was his twin sister in Greek mythology, and the goddess of hunting, wilderness and the Moon.

    Administrator Jim Bridenstine confirmed that Artemis 1 will be an uncrewed mission around the Moon planned for 2020.

    Next will come Artemis 2, which will orbit Earth's satellite with a crew around 2022; followed finally by Artemis 3 that will put astronauts on lunar soil in 2024, including the first woman.
    I am because we are
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    NASA executive charged with strategic planning of return to the Moon has resigned after plan was rejected.

    https://thehill.com/policy/technolog...er-appointment
    There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjecture out of such a trifling investment of fact.
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    Quote Originally Posted by Roger E. Moore View Post
    Sticker shock for Artemis has been hidden for now, but maybe we can have a betting pool on the preliminary cost. It will be huge. 37 launches....
    ISS took 40 launches. And 26 of them STS, as per the wiki.

    So, still do-able.

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    "NASA selects first commercial moon landing services for Artemis Program"

    NEOWatcher will be pleased with this as he wants "Speculate all you want but I want to see official statements, projects and estimated timelines, not discussions, hopes and speculations."

    http://www.moondaily.com/reports/NAS...ogram_999.html

    NASA has selected three commercial Moon landing service providers that will deliver science and technology payloads under Commercial Lunar Payload Services (CLPS) as part of the Artemis program. Each commercial lander will carry NASA-provided payloads that will conduct science investigations and demonstrate advanced technologies on the lunar surface, paving the way for NASA astronauts to land on the lunar surface by 2024.

    "Our selection of these U.S. commercial landing service providers represents America's return to the Moon's surface for the first time in decades, and it's a huge step forward for our Artemis lunar exploration plans," said NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine.

    "Next year, our initial science and technology research will be on the lunar surface, which will help support sending the first woman and the next man to the Moon in five years. Investing in these commercial landing services also is another strong step to build a commercial space economy beyond low-Earth orbit."
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    "Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) at NASA Headquarters calls on NASA to apply commercial crew lessons for Artemis"

    https://spacenews.com/safety-panel-c...s-for-artemis/

    As NASA starts development of lunar landers for Artemis, it should carefully incorporate the lessons learned from the commercial crew program, a safety panel advised.

    At a June 6 meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) at NASA Headquarters, members said that while the new goal of landing humans on the moon by 2024 has benefits, that accelerated efforts must not jeopardize safety.

    “The sense of schedule urgency can be positive and effective, but should not be a pressure that engenders decisions or actions that undermine mission assurance and safety,” said Patricia Sanders, chair of the panel. “Success will necessitate embracing lessons learned from models such as that used in the commercial crew program while still maintaining the fundamentals of effective design, system engineering and test.”

    Among those lessons, they said, is how the agency can work effectively with commercial partners. “One of the key takeaways from the commercial crew program and a lesson for the future is the close interaction between the government program office and the contract partners,” she said. That includes shared responsibility and “mutual transparency” between NASA and the commercial crew companies, Boeing and SpaceX.

    The use of non-traditional contracting mechanisms, like broad agency announcements and Space Act Agreements, is also another lesson the panel highlighted. Those approaches “can result in significantly lower development costs,” said ASAP member George Nield. “At the same time, that approach puts a lot more responsibility on the government to make sure that the requirements are correct at the start of the program and guarantee that there’s a way for the government to step in and appropriately respond to unexpected developments or technical surprises.”
    I am because we are
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    One thing I await in the literature is a more detailed discussion on the health hazards of breathing or ingesting lunar dust, of which there will be loads in future crewed lunar missions. Here are some older references that caused me concern.

    ===

    https://arxiv.org/abs/1206.6328

    Toxicity of lunar dust
    Dag Linnarsson, et al. (Submitted on 27 Jun 2012)

    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of substantial research efforts, lunar dust properties, and therefore lunar dust toxicity may differ substantially. In this contribution, past and ongoing work on dust toxicity is reviewed, and major knowledge gaps that prevent an accurate assessment of lunar dust toxicity are identified. Finally, a range of studies using ground-based, low-gravity, and in situ measurements is recommended to address the identified knowledge gaps. Because none of the curated lunar samples exist in a pristine state that preserves the surface reactive chemical aspects thought to be present on the lunar surface, studies using this material carry with them considerable uncertainty in terms of fidelity. As a consequence, in situ data on lunar dust properties will be required to provide ground truth for ground-based studies quantifying the toxicity of dust exposure and the associated health risks during future manned lunar missions.

    ===

    http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2016AdSpR..58..560R

    Lunar nanodust: Is it a borderland between powder and gas?
    Rosenfeld, E. V.; Korolev, A. V.; Zakharov, A. V.
    Advances in Space Research, Volume 58, Issue 4, p. 560-563. (08/2016)

    There is still no clear understanding of the mechanism responsible for two lunar dust peculiarities. Firstly, tenuous clouds of dust grains amazingly soar at an altitude of about a meter above the sunlit surface. Secondly, lunar dust has a powerful devastating effect on various materials. Here, we show that thermal fluctuations may be both the cause of the low-altitude levitation and the main ;damaging factor; of lunar dust. Indeed, fine particles should soar above hot surface and the presence of nanoparticles with enormously varying mass values provides the most efficient use of thermal energy to break bonds between nanoscopic structural elements of target material. These features must be intrinsic to any nanoparticle assemblies in the absence of large conglomerates that are sure to arise in terrestrial conditions.

    ===

    https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/ast.2014.1216

    Free-Radical Chemistry as a Means to Evaluate Lunar Dust Health Hazard in View of Future Missions to the Moon
    Francesco Turci, et al.
    Published Online: 18 May 2015 -- https://doi.org/10.1089/ast.2014.1216

    Lunar dust toxicity has to be evaluated in view of future manned missions to the Moon. Previous studies on lunar specimens and simulated dusts have revealed an oxidant activity assigned to HO· release. However, the mechanisms behind the reactivity of lunar dust are still quite unclear at the molecular level.

    ===

    https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/ast.2012.0950

    Neurotoxic Potential of Lunar and Martian Dust: Influence on Em, Proton Gradient, Active Transport, and Binding of Glutamate in Rat Brain Nerve Terminals
    Krisanova, Natalia; Kasatkina, Ludmila; Sivko, Roman; Borysov, Arseniy; Nazarova, Anastasiya; Slenzka, Klaus; Borisova, Tatiana
    Astrobiology, vol. 13, issue 8, pp. 679-692 (08/2013)

    The harmful effects of lunar dust (LD) on directly exposed tissues are documented in the literature, whereas researchers are only recently beginning to consider its effects on indirectly exposed tissues. During inhalation, nano-/microsized particles are efficiently deposited in nasal, tracheobronchial, and alveolar regions and transported to the central nervous system. The neurotoxic potential of LD and martian dust (MD) has not yet been assessed.

    ===

    http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2019AcAau.157..134M

    Self-cleaning spacesuits for future planetary missions using carbon nanotube technology
    Manyapu, Kavya K.; Peltz, Leora; De Leon, Pablo
    Acta Astronautica, Volume 157, p. 134-144. (04/2019)

    Lunar dust proved to be troublesome during the Apollo missions. The powdery dust got into everything, abrading spacesuit fabric, clogging seals and other critical equipment. Even inside the lunar module, Apollo astronauts were exposed to this dust after they removed their dust coated spacesuits. The lunar dust is comprised of fine particles, with electric charges imparted by solar winds and ultraviolet radiation. As such, it adheres readily, and easily penetrates through the smallest crevices into mechanisms. While efforts are under way to figure out how to return astronauts to the Moon and set up habitats for long duration missions, the issue of lunar dust remains relevant. Consequently, NASA has identified dust as a critical environmental challenge to overcome for future planetary surface missions characterized by dusty environments.
    Several concepts were successfully investigated by the international research community for preventing deposition of lunar dust on rigid surfaces (ex: solar cells and thermal radiators). However, applying these technologies for flexible surfaces and specifically to spacesuits has remained an open challenge, due to the complexity of the suit design, geometry, and dynamics. In our research, we developed a SPacesuit Integrated Carbon nanotube Dust Ejection/Removal (SPIcDER) system to protect spacesuits and other flexible surfaces from lunar dust. SPIcDER leverages the efficient Electrodynamic Dust Shield concept developed at NASA for use on solar cells. It is customized for dust mitigation on flexible surfaces, using novel materials and specialized design techniques. The result is a self-cleaning spacesuit that can repel lunar dust.
    This paper provides an overview of the SPIcDER system and showcases our working prototypes, ranging from coupons to a scaled portion of a lunar spacesuit segment. The design is supported by parametric analysis in ANSYS Maxwell for optimizing SPIcDER integration into the spacesuit outerlayer. The paper emphasizes design considerations for astronaut safety, based on analysis and experimental results. The SPIcDER system can be optimized efficiently for potential missions to Mars and asteroids, as well as for Earth based applications.
    There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjecture out of such a trifling investment of fact.
    — Mark Twain, Life on the Mississippi (1883)

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    Now we have a dollar figure - US20-30 billion. I would say that is on the low side but I am no accountatt.

    https://spacenews.com/bridenstine-es...20-30-billion/

    NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine said in a television interview June 13 that it will cost the agency an additional $20 billion to $30 billion to return humans to the moon, the first range of costs given by the agency for the program.

    In an interview with CNN, Bridenstine said that estimate would be above earlier projections for costs of existing elements of what’s now called the Artemis program, such as the Space Launch System rocket and Orion spacecraft

    “For the whole program, to get a sustainable presence on the moon, we’re looking at between 20 and 30 billion dollars,” he said. “When we talk about the 20 to 30 billion dollars, it would be 20 or 30 billion on top of the normal NASA budget but, of course, that would be spread over five years.”
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    Quote Originally Posted by selvaarchi View Post
    Now we have a dollar figure - US20-30 billion. I would say that is on the low side but I am no accountatt.
    Until the bills get paid, I'm skeptical of promises.
    "I'm planning to live forever. So far, that's working perfectly." Steven Wright

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